California Highways
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California Highways

Highway Statistics (Page 1)

The Long and the Short of It

 
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This page explores the long and the short of California's highway system. The following statistics are on this page:

Longest Highways

The following are the longest routes in the state, in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. {US] US 101: 807 miles.
US 101 runs from downtown Los Angeles, through Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Jose, San Francisco, Marin, and Redwood Country. It originally was longer, running all the way to the Mexico border. It is also #3 in traffic volume.
6. [CA] Route 299: 307 miles.
Route 299 (former US 299) runs in far northern California, from US 101 to the Nevada state line.
2. [I] I-5: 796 miles.
I-5 is the backbone of California, running from Mexico to the Oregon border. The route of I-5 includes portions of former US 101 and former US 99.
7. [CA] Route 65: 305 miles.
Route 65 is the only route in the top-ten for which a majority is unconstructed (only 94 miles are actually constructed). This was a planned freeway E of Route 99 between Bakersfield and Route 99 near Yuba City.
3. [CA] Route 1: 656 miles.
Route 1 runs from southern Orange County to US 101 near Leggett, hugging the coast most of the way. Spectacular views throughout.
8. [CA] Route 49: 295 miles.
Route 49 is primarily the Gold Country highway. It runs from Route 41 near Oakhurst to Route 70 near Vinton through the Sierra gold country.
4. {US] US 395: 557 miles.
US 395 currently runs from north of San Bernardino to the Oregon border, with a break when it passes through Nevada. It is the backbone of the eastern sierra country. It was originally much longer, running to the Mexican border along I-15/I-215's current route.
9. [I] I-15: 294 miles.
I-15 is the replacement for US 395 and US 91, running from San Diego to Nevada. It is the primary route from Southern California to Las Vegas.
5. [CA] Route 99: 415 miles.
Route 99 is what is left of US 99, running from I-5 N of Los Angeles, through Bakersfield, Fresno, and Sacramento, to rejoin I-5 in northern California.
10. [CA] Route 33: 290 miles.
Route 33 runs from Ventura in various segments up to I-5 near Vernalis. Portions are former US 399.

Shortest Highways

The following are the shortest routes in the state, in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. [CA] Route 283: 0.36 miles.
Route 283 is a former section of US 101 in Rio Dell near the Eel River in Humboldt county. Note: In terms of constructed length, Route 77 is shorter by 10'.
5. [CA] Route 259: 1 mile.
Route 259 is basically a ramp between I-215 and Route 30 (future I-210) in San Bernadino. Its average daily traffic is between 55,000 and 66,000, which is quite respectable.
2. [CA] Route 153: 0.50 miles.
Route 153 runs from Route 49 near Colima to Marshall's Monument in El Dorado county.
[CA] Route 244: 1 mile.
Route 244 is a short routing from I-80 to Auburn Blvd in Carmichael. It is what is left of a planned eastern loop freeway in Sacramento.
[CA] Route 265: 0.50 miles.
Route 265 is a former section of US 99 in Weed in Siskiyou county.
[CA] Route 224: 1 mile.
Route 224 (which has been deleted) ran from US 101 to the Carpenteria State Beach near Santa Barbara.
4. [CA] Route 282: 0.60 miles.
Route 75 to the Naval Air Station near Coronado, in San Diego county.
[CA] Route 262: 1 mile.
Route 262 runs from I-880 to I-680 near Warm Springs.
5. [CA] Route 207: 1 mile.
Route 4 near Alpine to the Mt. Reba Ski Area. One of the top-ten low traffic routes.
[CA] Route 114: 1 mile.
Route 114 is a short route from I-280 to Route 84 near Palo Alto. In 2000, this was shortened even more to start at US 101.

Longest Numbered County Highways

The following are the longest numbered county routes in the state, in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. [County] County Route J16: 75.74 miles.
I-5 at Howard Road in Stanislaus County to Bear Valley Road and Route 49 in Bear Valley [Mariposa County].
6. [County] County Route G16: 56.19 miles.
Carmel Valley Road and Route 1 to Metz Road, all in Monterey County.
2. [County] County Route J1: 70.48 miles.
Route 25 and Panache Road in San Benito County to Belmont Avenue and Route 33 in Fresno County.
7. [County] County Route J14: 47.91 miles.
Lander Ave. and Route 99 in Turlock [Stanislaus County] to Jenny Lind Road and Route 26 in Calaveras County.
3. [County] County Route S2: 65.02 miles.
Route 98 and Imperial Highway in Imperial County to San Felipe Road at Route 79 in San Diego County.
8. [County] County Route S22: 47.51 miles.
Montezuma Road and County Route S2 in San Diego County to Borrego Salton Sea Way and Route 86 in Imperial County.
4. [County] County Route G14: 61.81 miles.
24th Street at US 101 in Paso Robles [San Luis Obispo County] to US 101 at Jolon Road in Monterey County.
9. [County] County Route E21: 46.45 miles.
Grant Line Road and Route 99 in Sacramento County to Douglas Blvd. and I-80 in Placer County.
5. [County] County Route J7: 58.91 miles.
Santa Fe Drive at Route 59 in Merced County to Mariposa Road and Route 99 in San Joaquin County.
10. [County] County Route G17: 44.90 miles.
Reservation Road in Marina to Arroyo Seco Road and County Route G16, all in Monterey County.

Shortest Numbered County Highways

The following are the shortest numbered county routes in the state, in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. [County] County Route D6: 0.31 miles.
Mount Smith River Road from Indian Road to US 101 in Del Norte County.
6. [County] County Route G7: 3.25 miles.
Bloomfield Avenue from Route 25 to Route 152 (Pacheco Pass Highway) in Santa Clara County.
2. [County] County Route D7: 0.90 miles.
Requia Road from US 101 W to Klamath Road at the mouth of the Klamath River in Del Norte County.
7. [County] County Route S19: 3.33 miles.
Live Oak Canyon Road from El Toro Road (County Route S18) to O'Neill Park in Orange County.
3. [County] County Route D1: 2.62 miles.
Washington Blvd near Cresent City from Pebble Beach Drive and Northcrest Road to US 101 in Del Norte County.
8. [County] County Route D4: 3.43 miles.
Fred D Haight Drive from US 101 to US 101 in Del Norte County.
4. [County] County Route J36: 2.94 miles.
Road 60 from Avenue 368 (County Route J36) to Road A384 (CR J38), and Road 56 from Avenue A384 (County Route J38) to El Monte Way (Avenue 416, CR J40) in Tulare County.
9. [County] County Route A13: 3.79 miles.
Big Springs Road from Route 147 near Hamilton Branch to Route 36 in Plumas County.
5. [County] County Route E19: 3.12 miles.
Clarksburg Road from Route 84 to South River Road (County Route E9) in Yolo County.
10. [County] County Route E1: 3.91 miles.
Hot Springs Road from Grover Hot Springs to Laramie Street, and then Laramie Street to Route 89 in Markleeville in Alpine County.

Longest Unconstructed Highways

The following highways have the longest unconstructed sections. Many of these are planned freeways that are still on the books, but will never be constructed.

1. [CA] Route 65: 211 miles unconstructed (69% of the total route).
Route 65 was a planned freeway E of Route 99 between Bakersfield and Route 99 near Yuba City.
6. [CA] Route 178: 56 miles unconstructed (27% of the total route).
Route 178 runs from Bakersfield to Route 14 over the Sierras. Planned as freeway.
2. [CA] Route 211: 103 miles unconstructed (95% of the total route).
Route 211 is the "Lost Highway". It is the continuation of Route 1 from Rockport to Fernbridge. This was not planned as freeway.
7. [CA] Route 130: 47 miles unconstructed (68% of the total route).
Route 130 is defined to run from Route 101 to Route 33. The route is unconstructed from Mt. Hamilton to Route 33.
3. [CA] Route 180: 68 miles unconstructed (38% of the total route).
Route 180 is well known as the gateway to Kings Canyon. A large stretch between Route 25 and Route 33 is unconstructed. The entire unconstructed stretch was planned as freeway.
8. [CA] Route 190: 43 miles unconstructed (19% of the total route).
Route 190 runs officially from Route 99 to Route 127 near Death Valley. As with Route 178, this would go over the Sierras. It is unconstructed from Quaking Aspen to US 395.
4. [CA] Route 162: 63 miles unconstructed (36% of the total route).
Route 162 runs from US 101 near Longvale to beyond Route 70 near Oroville. The unconstructed portion is between Covelo and Elk Creek (Mendocino and Glenn counties). Not planned as freeway.
9. [CA] Route 102: 38 miles unconstructed (all of the total route).
Route 102 runs from Route 5 near Elkhorn to I-80 near Auburn. This was a planned freeway.
5. [CA] Route 122: 61 miles unconstructed (all of the total route).
Route 122 was a planned route from Route 14 near Palmdale to Route 58. The route was originally much longer, running from Route 249 in the Angeles Crest Forest to Route 58.
10. [CA] Route 125: 34 miles unconstructed (94% of the total route).
Route 125 is a route actually under construction in San Diego; it runs from Route 905 to Route 56. Since the statistics were collected, a lot more of this highway has been constructed.

Longest Rural Highways

The following are the routes in the state with the longest portion that is classified as "rural", in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. [I] I-5: 560 rural miles.
I-5 is the backbone of California, running from Mexico to the Oregon border. Although it runs through some major cities (San Diego, Los Angeles, Sacramento), the bulk of the route runs the the center of the state. The route is 70.3% rural, 26.4% urban, and 3.3% sm. urban.
6. [CA] Route 49: 286 rural miles.
Route 49 is primarily the Gold Country highway. It runs from Route 41 near Oakhurst to Route 70 near Vinton through the Sierra gold country. No major cities along this route. The route is 97% rural and 3% sm. urban.
2. {US] US 395: 549 rural miles.
US 395 currently runs from north of San Bernardino to the Oregon border. No major cities along this route. The route is 98.6% rural, 1.4% sm. urban.
7. [CA] Route 65: 273 rural miles.
Route 65 is a planned freeway E of Route 99 between Bakersfield and Route 99 near Yuba City. The only major urban area it would touch is Sacramento. The route is 89.5% rural, 7.2% urban, and 3.3% sm. urban.
3. {US] US 101: 487 rural miles.
US 101 runs from downtown Los Angeles, through Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Jose, San Francisco, Marin, and Redwood Country. Not much rural country there. But it also runs through rural central California and quite a bit of rural northern California. The route is 60.3% rural, 30.2% urban, and 30.2% sm. urban.
8. [CA] Route 99: 261 rural miles.
Route 99 runs from I-5 N of Los Angeles, through Bakersfield, Fresno, and Sacramento, to rejoin I-5 in northern California. The route is 62.9% rural, 25% urban, and 12.1% sm. urban.
4. [CA] Route 1: 454 rural miles.
Route 1 runs from southern Orange County to US 101 near Leggett, hugging the coast most of the way. There are a few major urban areas (Los Angeles, San Francisco), but there is also the scenic rural Big Sur. The route is 69.2% rural, 27.9% sm. urban, and 2.9% urban.
9. [CA] Route 36: 260 rural miles.
Route 36 runs from US 101 to US 395 in far Northern California. No major cities. The route is 97% rural and 3% sm. urban.
5. [CA] Route 299: 300 rural miles.
Route 299 (former US 299) runs in far northern California, from US 101 to the Nevada state line. It only traverses a few cities, such as Redding. The route is 97.7% rural, 2.0% urban, and 0.3% sm. urban
10. [CA] Route 33: 259 rural miles.
Route 33 runs from Ventura in various segments up to I-5 near Vernalis. Only a few larger urban areas, such as Ojai. The route is 89.3% rural, 7.9% sm. urban, and 2.8% urban.

Longest Urban Highways

The following are the routes in the state with the longest portion that is classified as "urban", in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. {US] US 101: 244 urban miles.
US 101 runs from downtown Los Angeles, through Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Jose, San Francisco, Marin, and Redwood Country. Some big urban centers. The route is 30.2% urban, 60.3% rural, and 30.2% sm. urban.
6. [I] I-80: 87 urban miles.
I-80 runs to the Nevada border from San Francisco, through Sacramento. The route is 42.6% urban, 54.9% rural, and 2.5% sm. urban.
2. [I] I-5: 210 urban miles.
I-5 runs from Mexico to the Oregon border through San Diego, Greater Los Angeles, and Sacramento. The route is 26.4% urban, 70.3% rural, and 3.3% sm. urban.
7. [I] I-15: 79 urban miles.
I-15 runs from San Diego to Nevada. Major urban areas are San Diego and San Bernardino. The route is 26.8% urban, 62.6% rural, and 10.5% sm. urban.
3. [CA] Route 1: 183 urban miles.
Route 1 runs from southern Orange County to US 101 near Leggett. There are a few major urban areas (Los Angeles, San Francisco). The route is 2.9% urban, 69.2% rural, and 27.9% sm. urban.
8. [I] I-405: 72 urban miles.
I-405 runs from southern Orange County (near Irvine) to the northern San Fernando Valley, in Los Angeles. 100% urban.
4. [CA] Route 99: 104 urban miles.
Route 99 runs from I-5 N of Los Angeles, through Bakersfield, Fresno, and Sacramento. The route is 25% urban, 62.9% rural, and 12.1% sm. urban.
9. [CA] Route 91: 65 urban miles.
Route 91 runs from the beach communities such as Redondo Beach through Orange County to Riverside. 100% urban.
5. [I] I-10: 94 urban miles
I-10 runs from Santa Monica to the Arizona Border, through Downtown Los Angeles and through East LA all the way out to San Bernardino. The route is 38.8% urban, 55.4% rural, and 5.8% sm. urban.
10. [CA] Route 60: 61 urban miles.
Route 60 (part of former US 60) runs from I-10 in downtown Los Angeles through Riverside to I-10 near Beaumont. The route is 87.1% urban, 10% rural, and 2.9% sm. urban.

Longest All-Urban Highways

The following are the longest routes in the state that are exclusively classified as "urban", in terms of total miles (both traversable and unconstructed):

1. [I] I-405: 72 urban miles.
I-405 runs from southern Orange County (near Irvine) to the northern San Fernando Valley, in Los Angeles.
6. [CA] Route 30: 44 urban miles.
Route 30 (now legislatively part of Route 210) runs from I-210 in San Dimas to I-10 in Redlands. When completed, it will be renumbered as part of I-210.
2. [CA] Route 91: 65 urban miles.
Route 91 runs from the beach communities such as Redondo Beach through Orange County to Riverside.
7. [CA] Route 90: 41 urban miles.
Route 90 runs from Route 1 near the LA Airport to Route 91 near Santa Ana Canyon. All urban; only a small portion is freeway.
3. [CA] Route 82: 52 urban miles.
Route 82 runs from US 101 in San Jose to I-280 in San Francisco. It is the surface street routing that used to be US 101.
8. [I] [CA] I-110/CA 110: 33 urban miles
I-110 runs from the Port of Los Angeles to downtown Los Angeles. Route 110 runs from downtown LA to Pasadena.
4. [I] I-210: 49 urban miles.
I-210 runs from near the I-5/I-405 junction, through Pasadena, on to Pomona. It will eventually run to San Bernadino when the Route 30 freeway (#6 on this list) is completed and renumbered as part of I-210 .
9. [CA] Route 81: 31 urban miles, all unconstructed.
The unconstructed Route 81 freeway would have run from I-215 E of Riverside to I-15 S of Devore. It would have split the difference between I-15 and I-215 to S of Riverside, then turning E near the Riverside airport, and then back to I-215.
5. [I] I-880: 45 urban miles
I-880 runs from I-280 in San Jose to I-80 in Oakland.
10. [I] I-605: 30 urban miles.
I-605 runs from Route 1 to I-210 along the San Gabriel River.

Highest Summits

The area the highest summits or passes in the State Highway system:

1. [CA] Route 120: Tioga Pass, at 9,945 ft. Note: Tioga Pass is technically on a Federal Lands Highway, neither owned nor legislatively defined by California, but the pass is commonly treated as part of the route.
Tioga Pass crosses the Sierra Nevada mountains, connecting the Eastern Sierras to Yosemite National Park.
7. [CA] Route 270: The highest point here is not named, but appears to be around 8538-8540 feet. This is in the Sierra Nevada mountains, near Bodie.
2. [CA] Route 108: Sonora Pass, at 9,624 ft.
Sonora Pass also crosses the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the border between Tuolumne county and Mono county.
8. [CA] Route 38: Onyx Summit, at 8,443 ft.
Onxy Summit is in the San Bernardino mtns. near Big Bear.
3. [CA] Route 203: Starts at 9,170 ft. Route 203 has this approximate elevation at Postmile L0.00, within 200 feet of Minaret Summit (9,175 ft.). The statutory definition changed in 1967, moving the origin to the Mono County line. 9. [CA] Route 89: Monitor Pass, at 8,318 ft.
Monitor Pass is in the Sierras, near the Alpine/Mono County Border.
4. [CA] Route 168: Starts at 9,070 ft. This is at the route origin at Camp Sabrina, west of Bishop; this location is not at a pass or summit. 10. {US] US 395: Conway Summit, at 8,138 ft.
Conway Summit in on US 395 in Mono county, between Lee Vining and Bridgeport. Yet another Sierra Nevada summit. This segment of road is a true looping road; i.e., a 4 lane expressway with a loop on the upgrade going towards Nevada.
5. [CA] Route 4: Ebbetts Pass, at 8,731 ft.
Ebbetts Pass is in the Sierras, near Hermit Valley, in Alpine County.
11. {US] US 395: Deadman Summit, at 8,041 ft.
This is on US 395 north of the turn off for Mammoth Lakes (Route 203) and south of the Southern turn off for June Lake (Route 158). Deadman Summit is south of Bridgeport, south of Conway Summit, south of Lee Vining, and south of both turn offs to June Lake.
6. [CA] Route 88: Carson Pass, at 8,573 ft.
Carson Pass also crosses the Sierra Nevada mountains, near Kirkwood Lake in Alpine county.
12. [CA] Route 2: Dawson's Saddle, at 7,903 ft.
Dawson's Saddle is in the San Gabriel Mountains, along Angeles Crest Highway.

As one can see, a majority of the summits are in the Sierra Nevada mountain range. There are also some good runner ups, such as Route 168 W of Bishop, which although it doesn't have any passes or summits, exists above 8,000 ft, or Route 203, near Mammoth Mountain, which ends as a state highway a mile or two before Minaret Summit (9,175 ft), although the road itself continues down into the Valley and Devils Postpile.

Robert Carnachan, in MTR, that the highest paved public road (not necessarily a state highway) in California is Rock Creek Road in Inyo County. Rock Creek Road is both a county-maintained and US Forest Service maintained paved road that begins at US 395 near Tom's Place northwest of Bishop (elevation approx. 7,500 feet) and climbs southwest into the High Sierra along Rock Creek. The road deadends around 15 miles later at Mosquito Flat, elevation 10,300 feet. A close second would be Saddlebag Lake Road in Mono County. This paved USFS road begins at Route 120 at Tioga Lake Resort (el. 9,700 feet) and extends for approximately four miles north to the shore of Saddlebag Lake and ends there at an elevation of approximately 10,150 feet. The only other paved road in the state that exceeds 10,000 feet is the road to the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest Preserve in the Inyo National Forest in the White Mountains. The paved portion of this road ends at Schulman Grove, elevation 10,010 feet.

In terms of unpaved public roads, Pine Creek Road west of Bishop (which climbs up Pine Creek Canyon into the High Sierra to an elevation of around 11,000 feet—and used to continue to the old mining "town" of Scheelite at nearly 12,000 feet) qualifies, though it may not be passable in its upper segment by most vehicles (and may be closed off by the Forest Service now). The unpaved continuation of the Bristlecone Pine Forest road in the White Mountains goes from Schulman Grove (where the pavement ends) to Patriarch Grove at over 11,000 feet. There is a parking lot here and the road beyond is closed to the public. This road continues to the Univ. of California research station on White Mountain Peak, el. 14,242 feet (the highest non-Sierra peak in CA), but it is not open to public motorized vehicle traffic; only official vehicles.

Note that most of California's areas above 10,000 feet have been protected as designated wilderness, which is largely why the state has fewer roads above 10,000 feet than Colorado despite having a similar amount of terrain at that elevation.

Steepest Slopes

Related to summits is the issue of slopes. Alas, there is no information available as to which segment of which highway has the steepest slope. There are some portions of Route 4 that have a slope of 24%. However, finding the answer is difficult. Specific grade and slope stats are difficult to find except in a more general way. Cantrans does have a Route Segment Report, but this only indicates if a stretch of terrain is level, rolling, or mountainous. Specifically, the report will provide info by segment as to whether different sections are considered flat, rolling, moderate, or steep: 0-3 percent, coded with F (flat) 3-6 percent, coded with R (rolling) greater that 6 percent for 1/2 or less than a segment or sustained grades for 1/4 to 3/4 mile, coded with M (moderate) greater than 6 percent for more that one half of a segment length or 3/4 mile, coded with S. (steep). However, the report doesn't provide sufficient information for one to be able to manually rank the routes from highest to lowest. Note that inquiries about specific grade percentages should be sent to to a District or HQ Public Affairs Officer.

Tunnels on the State Highway System

A discussion in September 2007 on misc.transport.road attempted to list all the tunnels on the state highway system. Larry Scholnick went through the Caltrans Bridge Log, and identified the following tunnels:

  1. US 199 - Randolph Collier Tunnel (District 1)
  2. Route 70 - Grizzly Dome Tunnel (District 2)
  3. Route 70 - Elephant Butte Tunnel (District 2)
  4. Route 70 - Spanish Creek Tunnel (District 2)
  5. Route 70 - Arch Rock Tunnel (District 3)
  6. Route 1 - Presidio Tunnel (District 4)
  7. Route 4 - BNSF Railway Tunnel (District 4)
  8. Route 24 - 46th Street Tunnel (District 4)
  9. Route 24 - Golden Gate Avenue Tunnel (District 4)
  10. Route 24 - Caldecott Tunnel Bore 1 (District 4)
  11. Route 24 - Caldecott Tunnel Bore 2 (District 4)
  12. Route 24 - Caldecott Tunnel Bore 3 (District 4)
  13. Route 24 - Walnut Creek BART Tunnel (District 4)
  14. US 101 - Fort Cronkhite Tunnel (District 4). This is just off of US 101, a single lane tunnel, one of 2 roads into the Marin Highlands. Going North across the GG Bridge, take the Sausalito exit and the road to it will be just to your left within just a few feet of the US 101 exit.
  15. US 101 - Waldo Tunnel (District 4)
  16. US 101 - Gaviota Gorge Tunnel (District 5)
  17. Route 58 - W58-N99 Connector Tunnel (District 6)
  18. Route 1 - McClure Tunnel (District 7)
  19. Route 2 - Crest Tunnel #1 (District 7)
  20. Route 2 - Crest Tunnel #2 (District 7)
  21. Route 19 - Route 19 Tunnel (I-405) (District 7)
  22. Route 33 - South Matilija Tunnel (District 7)
  23. Route 33 - Middle Matilija Tunnel (District 7)
  24. Route 33 - North Matilija Tunnel (District 7)
  25. I-105 - E105-S405 Connector Tunnel (District 7)
  26. I-105 - E105-N405 Connector Tunnel (District 7)
  27. I-105 - W105-S405 Connector Tunnel (District 7)
  28. Route 110 - Figueroa Street Tunnel (District 7)
  29. Route 15 Polk-Orange Avenue Tunnel (District 11)

This list is incomplete, however, for it omits the tunnel under the LAX runways on Route 1 as a tunnel; it is listed as Airport Viaduct. Another notable tunnel they are missing is the I-80 tunnel through Yerba Buena Island in the middle of San Francisco Bay; this is listed as Yerba Buena Crossing on I-80 in San Francisco County at mileage 7.72 with a length of 546 feet. It's between SFOBB West Bay (SF 6.35 - 6,281 feet) and SFOBB East Bay (Alameda 1.15 - 6,905 feet). Under construction is the Devil's Slide tunnel on Route 1. It also omits tunnels on county routes, such as those on Kanan-Dume Road (T1, T2, T3) (Los Angeles County Route N9). There is also a tunnel on former US 40 at Newcastle in the Sierra foothills, which is now a county maintained route. Similarly, the tunnel on pre-1964 Route 7 (Sepulveda Blvd.) under the crest of the Santa Monica Mountains in LA is now city-owned. There is also debate as to whether all of these are truly tunnels.


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© 1996-2006 Daniel P. Faigin.
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