Routes 305 through 440
Click here for a key to the symbols used. "LRN" refers to the Pre-1964 Legislative Route Number. "US" refers to a US Shield signed route. "I" refers to an Eisenhower Interstate signed route. "Route" usually indicates a state shield signed route, but said route may be signed as US or I. Previous Federal Aid (pre-1992) categories: Federal Aid Interstate (FAI); Federal Aid Primary (FAP); Federal Aid Urban (FAU); and Federal Aid Secondary (FAS). Current Functional Classifications (used for aid purposes): Principal Arterial (PA); Minor Arterial (MA); Collector (Col); Rural Minor Collector/Local Road (RMC/LR). Note that ISTEA repealed the previous Federal-Aid System, effective in 1992, and established the functional classification system for all public roads.
305 · 330 · 371 · 380 · 395 · 399 · 405 · 440
No current routing.
Route 305 was never legislatively defined. However, there is a portion of a route that is known to AASHTO as I-305 for funding purposes. This segment, from the Route I-80/US50 interchange in West Sacramento to the Route 99/US50 interchange was originally part of I-80. It was redesignated as chargeable I-305 in May 1980 (and that designation remains on the books at AASHTO). Later in 1980, it was reassigned to US 50. It is currently signed as US50/Business Loop 80 until reaching jct with Route 99/US50/Business Loop 80 on east side of Sacramento.
Note: Although I-305 is not signed, and is not a state highway, the portion of the original I-305 (present-day US 50 between Route 99 to the former I-80/I-880 junction in W Sacramento) is still on the books as Federal-Aid Interstate 305. The FHWA log shows it as 8 miles.
The start of the route was changed to Route 210 by AB 1650, Ch 724, 10/10/99.
This was part of LRN 207, defined in 1937.
In December 2010, major storms resulted in the washout of a section of Route 330 at the Postmile 35, just about 6 miles north of Highland Avenue. Repairs were estimated to be finished in late 2011 or early 2012. Work will be divvied up into three phases across the approximately 15-mile highway. The $6 million first phase to fix several smaller washouts and prepare the roadway will allow larger equipment to reach the worst-hit area.
In March 2011, it was reported that the road was reopened for commuter traffic only. Drivers will be able to drive downbound between Live Oak Road and Highland Ave in the morning between 6am and 8am. In the afternoon and evening, they will be able to drive upbound from Highland to Live Oak between 4 and 6. Traffic will only be one direction during commute times and motorists will need to use the proper lane. CHP says that they may close the road at anytime if there’s bad weather or reckless driving that endangers the safety of the construction workers.
In June 2011, it was reported that Caltrans now is targeting the full reopening for the July 4th holiday weekend.
[SHC 263.1] Entire route.
The following segments are designated as Classified Landscaped Freeway:
Route 330 in the County of San Bernardino is named the "Steve Faris Memorial Highway" This route was named in memory of Battalion Chief Steve Faris of the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. In 1998, Battalion Chief Faris helped establish in the Inland Empire the Mountain Rim Fire Safe Council, which was the first of more than 14 councils that are now active in the Counties of San Bernardino and Riverside. He was instrumental in bringing together the fire safe councils to form the Inland Empire Fire Safe Alliance. In 2002, Battalion Chief Faris was intimately involved in the establishment of the Mountain Area Safety Taskforce (MAST), which brought local, state, and federal agencies together to address the critical fire situation presented by the bark beetle-drought tree mortality issues. The consolidated efforts of MAST and fire safe councils contributed significantly to the safe evacuation of more than 60,000 people during the Old Fire of 2003. Battalion Chief Faris was a friendly, giving, and passionate person who included everyone and found a way to work with anyone interested in his efforts to save lives and establish defensible space for properties in the mountains. Battalion Chief Faris died in an automobile accident in September 2006. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution (SCR) 12, Resolution Chapter 72, on 7/14/2009.
[SHC 253.1] Entire route. Added to the Freeway and Expressway system in 1959.
A stub of this route, for about 1 mile going up City Creek, is built to freeway standards.
Overall statistics for Route 330:
From the junction was LRN 78 (present-day Route 79), Route 71 continued to the W to Temecula, signed as Route 71. A short portion was cosigned as Route 71/Route 79 (the portion between the present-day Route 79/Route 371 junction and Riverside County Route R3. Route 79 continued N along present-day Riverside County Route R3, while Route 71 continued to the W. In 1966 (although historical information leads one to believe this happened in 1974), County Route R3 was defined, and Route 79 continued cosigned with Route 71 all the way to US 395 (now I-15). In 1974, that segment was resigned as Route 79 only. Route 71 then turned N, continuing up what is now I-15 to Route 91. It was cosigned briefly with Route 91 to Corona, and then continued N to Pomona. This latter segment is all that remains of Route 71.
The intersection of Route 371 and Route 79 has demonstrated itself to be a high source of accidents, with four deaths occuring in the period from July 2001 to July 2002. As a result, the intersection is being redesigned. Two-lane Route 79 is the main link between Temecula and the Warner Springs and Santa Ysabel areas of San Diego County. Two-lane Route 371 is a well-traveled back road between Southwest County and Palm Springs. Currently, the two roads converge in Aguanga where an oddly configured intersection contributes greatly to the accident count. Westbound traffic on Route 79 must stop at the intersection, while eastbound traffic on Route 79 and traffic coming down a steep curvy grade from Anza on Route 371 proceed without stopping. Beginning in Summer 2003, work started to reconfigure the intersection to force drivers heading toward Temecula to stop and turn either left of right at a "T" intersection with Route 371. Turning left would take them quickly back to Route 79. Long-term improvements will include a merger lane from Route 371 to Route 79. As of April 2008, construction had been completed: It is now a standard T intersection with 3-way stop signs. Traffic leaving Route 371 is forced to turn, while travellers on Route 79 can proceed straight through. Most of Route 371 has been newly repaved as well. Most of the mile markers on Route 371 are very weathered (similar to the section of Route 74 between Route 371 and Route 111) but are marked with mileage between PM 57 (at the south end) and PM 78 (at the north end).
In July 2016, it was reported that Caltrans began construction on a left
turn lane project on a section of Route 371, in the section of roadway along
Route 371 two-tenths of one mile west of Bahrman Road and just west of Bailiff
Road in the unincorporated community of Anza. The $520,000 project, which was
awarded to All American Asphalt, is expected to end by the beginning of
September 2016. All American Asphalt will begin clearing and grubbing on July
11, 2016 and is expected to continue until July 15. During clearing and
grubbing, Caltrans workers focus on the preservation of public and private
property and pay special attention to environmentally sensitive areas. The
project will be constructing left turn lanes for both directions of travel on
Route 371 and also be digging to allow access for underground utilities.
In October 2016, it was reported that Caltrans had resumed work to complete
the Route 371 Left Turn Lane Project at Bahram Road that will include
additional highway work requested by Anza residents in an Anza Valley Municipal
Advisory Council meeting in July. The project scope had been altered to
accommodate the extension of a two-way continuous left turn lane from the
center of Anza to the intersections at Bahram rather than the originally
planned left turn lanes at Bahram. Requests from the Anza community at a recent
Municipal Advisory Council meeting led Caltrans to change the lane
configuration based on the access needs of community and local businesses. The
changes being requested by Anza residents required an additional $160,000 to be
added to the original $520,000 project. The planning change by Caltrans was the
second in the community with the first being a plan to cut some of the historic
trees along Route 371 in the main village area. Plans were changed on the
residents’ requests and updated engineering reports. The work was
scheduled for completion at the end of 2016.
In January 2017, it was reported that Caltrans had announced it will
constructing rumble strips on the existing shoulder and centerline of Route 371
in Anza from Wilson Valley Road to Cary Road and from Kirby Road to Route
371/Route 74 starting in 2018. Rumble strips on highways are designed to let
motorists know when they are drifting out or into the opposing lane or into the
shoulder. “Caltrans is currently in the Preliminary Engineering phase,
and we are developing the Environmental Document and the Project Report,”
said a news release sent by Elaheh Hadipour, PE, Caltrans project manager.
“The project is currently programmed to start construction in late
The portion of Route 371 from Howard Road to Tribal Road near the community
of Anza in Riverside County is officially named the "Special Deputy Frank
Hamilton Memorial Highway". It was named in memory of Frank Hamilton, a
Native American and a Cahuilla tribal member from the Anza area, who in 1895
was working as a Riverside County special deputy sheriff. Hamilton acted as a
law enforcement officer for the Riverside County Sheriff’s Office in the
areas surrounding the Cahuilla and Ramona Reservations (Anza) area, including
the area surrounding the town of San Jacinto. Hamilton had family ties to both
reservations. Hamilton, who was 34 years of age and unmarried, was the son of a
prominent rancher, James Hamilton, namesake of the Hamilton School in the
community of Anza. He resided at the family ranch, which was first in Cahuilla,
now present day Anza. The ranch then moved to Kenworthy, presently known as
Garner Valley. In the early years of Riverside County, special deputies were
used throughout the county to support the operation of the Riverside County
Sheriff’s Office. In the first few years of its existence, the Riverside
County Sheriff’s Office consisted of one sheriff and two deputy sheriffs.
Riverside County was incorporated on May 9, 1893. Special Deputy Frank Hamilton
was the first deputy sheriff in Riverside County to be murdered in the line of
duty and his killing was the subject of the first murder trial held in
Riverside County’s history. On the evening of April 8, 1895, Special
Deputy Frank Hamilton was in the town of San Jacinto tending to his duties as a
special deputy sheriff. He was in the town saloon when a disagreement erupted
between him and Charles Marshall, who had greeted Special Deputy Frank Hamilton
with a racial epithet. Marshall became enraged over the disagreement and left.
Special Deputy Frank Hamilton had told Marshall to go away and that he did not
want any trouble with him, but Marshall retrieved a revolver and went in search
of Special Deputy Frank Hamilton. Marshall located Special Deputy Frank
Hamilton in an alleyway adjacent to the town saloon, and, without warning,
began firing, hitting Special Deputy Frank Hamilton twice as he returned fire
and managed to wound Marshall. Special Deputy Frank Hamilton succumbed to his
gunshot wounds the following day, April 9, 1895. Named by Senate Concurrent
Resolution 51, Resolution Chapter 2, on February 1, 2016.
[SHC 253.1] Entire route. Added to the Freeway and Expressway system in 1959.
This route is part of the De Anza National Historic Trail.
Overall statistics for Route 371:
The following segments are designated as Classified Landscaped Freeway:
Approved as chargeable interstate in December 1968; Freeway.
[SHC 253.1] Entire route. Added to the Freeway and Expressway system in 1959.
Overall statistics for I-380:
As of March 2008, the California Transportation Committee unanimously approved the designation of former US 395 as a historic route from San Diego to the Oregon border. It is still pending approval by the legislature and the governor. However, anticipating approval, San Diego County Supervisor Bill Horn approved $4,000 for the 31 signs that now mark old 395 in his district -- from Vista to the Bonsall Bridge, through downtown Fallbrook, to Rainbow.
On July 8, 2008, Resolution Chapter 79 officially designated specified sections of former US Highway Route 395 as Historic US Highway 395. The resolution noted that former US 395 was a scenic stretch of highway that ran through historic areas of the County of Riverside and provided the only direct route from San Diego to the Lake Tahoe region and northern Nevada, before heading back into California on its way north to Oregon and all the way into Canada. While former US 395 remains largely intact through the Counties of Inyo, Mono, Sierra, Lassen, and Modoc, only sections of former US 395 still exist in portions of the County of San Diego and the high desert area of the County of San Bernardino; most of the former highway route has been replaced by I-15 and I-215 in the Counties of San Diego, Riverside, and San Bernardino. US 395, which remains as I-15 and I-215, was the major and most significant connection between San Diego, the Inland Empire, and the eastern Sierra Nevada region. US 395 was known as the Cabrillo Parkway (and later the Cabrillo Freeway) in San Diego, now Route 163, it was the first freeway to be constructed in San Diego and opened to traffic in 1948. Part of the original routing of former US 395 in northern San Diego County includes the old Bonsall Bridge, one of the earliest automotive crossings over the San Luis Rey River, later becoming part of Route 76. The portion of former US 395 between Temecula and Lake Elsinore was part of the Butterfield Overland Mail route, the first major overland delivery service to southern California, established September 16, 1858. After its realignment eastward, former US 395 became the first major expressway and freeway system in the southern portion of the County of Riverside in the early 1950s, servicing the Cities of Temecula, Murrieta, Menifee, Sun City, and Perris. Today this is I-215. The portion of former US 395 between the Cities of San Bernardino and Hesperia, near modern US 395, traverses the Cajon Pass with old US 66 and old US 91, most famously used by the Mormons in 1851 in their crossing into the valley where they subsequently founded the modern Cities of San Bernardino and Riverside. The heritage in the regions through which former US 395 passed was greatly diminished when the former highway was replaced by suburban streets and I-15 and I-215.The Legislature hereby recognizes the remaining segments of US 395 for their historical significance and importance in the development of California, and designates those segments as Historic State Highway Route 395. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 98, Resolution Chapter 79, on 7/3/2008.
In January 2016, it was noted that more cities were signing historic US 395.
Moreno Valley will be the latest Inland city, joining others from Riverside to
Temecula, to rediscover the US 395 and put up brown signs along the route of
the once-vital artery. The city and Moreno Valley Historical Society dedicated
the 2-mile section of the 395 between Eucalyptus and Cactus avenues on Memorial
Day with a weekend of activities. Though US 66, another U.S. highway, is
considered the mother road connecting the nation east to west, the 395 is its
lesser-known north-south counterpart. The 1,400-mile road was known as the
Three Flag Highway because it went from the Mexican border through several
Western states to the Canadian border, said Jeffery Harmon, founder of the
Historic Route 395 Association. It was officially designated U.S. Highway 395
in 1939 after passage of federal legislation. However, it had existed as a
series of dirt roads from San Diego to the Cajon Pass for decades. During World
War II, at the urging of the military, the highway was improved to provide a
better link between San Diego’s Navy base, a weapons depot in Fallbrook
and March Field in what later became Moreno Valley. The route was nicknamed the
Cannonball Highway because of its military importance. The highway faded into
obscurity after years of rerouting and the development of other north-south
routes, I-15 and I-15E (now I-215), in the 1970s. By the 1980s, US 395 had been
decommissioned in Riverside and San Diego counties, though it continues to run
from Hesperia in San Bernardino County along the eastern Sierra Nevada and
north to Canada. In recent years, several cities have begun efforts to
commemorate US 395. In San Diego and other cities in San Diego County, signs
were put up along the route. Communities such as Fallbrook, Rainbow, Temecula,
Murrieta, Lake Elsinore, Perris and Riverside did the same. In Riverside, city
officials put up 36 signs on downtown streets, including Market Street and
University Avenue, which still has roadside hotels that are a remnant of when
it was part of the highway, said Steve Lech, president of the Riverside
This route (post-1964 US 395) was designated as a "Blue Star Memorial Highway" by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 112, Ch. 143 in 1984.
Overall statistics for US 395:
No current routing.
Until July 1, 1964, the following route was signed as US 399:
Signage of the route as US 399 dates back to around 1935. Note that, as of 1936, US 399 actually continue north cosigned with US 99 to end at US 466. This portion of US 399 was later relegated to Business Loop status in 1962, and became Business Route 99/Route 204 in 1964. However, the portion of former US 399 south of Brundage Lane (current parallel street to Route 58, the replacement for US 466) was removed from the state route in 1978; only the portion of former US 99 on Union Avenue from Golden State Avenue/Sumner Street south to Route 58 remains in the state system as Route 204. All of the route remains part of Business Route 99.
This segment remains as defined in 1963.
The first section of I-405 opened in 1957, signed as Route 7. One of the earliest sections was in West Los Angeles, from Bellagio Rd to Santa Monica Blvd. The part west of I-605 was done before 1965; the newest section, near the southern junction with I-5, opened in 1969.
The following freeway-to-freeway connections were never constructed:
This routing was LRN 158. The portion from I-5 in Orange County to Route 710 was defined in 1951; the portion from Route 710 to Route 90 was defined in 1947; and the portion from Route 90 to I-5 in San Fernando was defined in 1933. Before the freeway was constructed, LRN 158 also applied to pre-1963 Route 7 between the US 99/US 6 junction and Route 107.
Interesting historical note: In the May/June 1928 issue of California Highways and Public Works, there is a discussion of the routing of the Newhall Highway from Saugus to San Fernando. The article notes: "From a point on the south roadway near the Cascades it is proposed to extend a new highway south through the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica mountains to the west coast; there to connect with the state coast highway extending from Oxnard to San Juan Capestrano"
The I-405/I-605 interchange was designed by Carol Schumaker.
The I-405/I-10 interchange was designed by Marilyn Jorgenson Reece, who was the first woman in California to be registered as a civil engineer. She died in May 2004. A South Dakota native who earned a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1948, Reece moved to Los Angeles with her parents shortly after graduation. The same year, she went to work for the State Division of Highways, which later became Caltrans, as a junior civil engineer in Los Angeles. In 1954, after six years of required experience to sit for the Professional Engineer's Exam, Reece became the state's first fully licensed female civil engineer. In 1962, she received the Governor's Design Excellence Award from Gov. Pat Brown for the San Diego-Santa Monica freeway interchange. Shortly after, Reece became the Division of Highway's first woman resident engineer for construction projects. The three-level San Diego-Santa Monica freeway interchange, which opened in 1964, was the first interchange designed in California by a woman engineer. Reece told The Los Angeles Times in 1995 that she put her "heart and soul into it" and that she designed the interchange with aesthetics in mind. "It is very airy. It isn't a cluttered, loopy thing," she said, adding that specifications to keep traffic moving at high speeds necessitated the long, sweeping curves. The image to the right, excerpted from One Hundred Years of Progress, shows Reece and Thomas McKinley. However, the book referred to Reece as an Associate Engineer, with McKinley as a Resident Engineer, but did indicate that Reece supervised the I-405/I-10 interchange project. The view in the photo is looking N from what is roughly the National offramp on the I-405; you can see a sign for the Route 26 Olympic Blvd NB offramp that was removed as part of the project (likewise, the SB National offramp was removed). A nice profile of Ms. Reece may be found on the LA Daily Mirror blog.
Construction on I-405 (the "Sepulveda Freeway") begin 1954. CHPW noted in November-December 1953, "Los Angeles County, structures on the route of the Sepulveda Freeway, between Waterford Street and Casiano Road in West Los Angeles, $800,000 (first construction on the Sepulveda Freeway)." Construction started with the original bridges at Sunset Blvd. The name San Diego Freeway started being used in 1955. (Note: Prior to 1955, the portion of US 101 S of the junction with Route 7 (e.g., present-day I-5 S of the I-5/I-405 jct.) was called the Santa Ana Freeway. The first segment of I-405 opened was the two-mile section of the San Diego Freeway from Ohio Street to Casiano Road. The first plan work on the San Diego Freeway was started by the Engineering Bureau Department of Public Works of the City of Los Angeles under City Engineer Lloyd C. Aldrich in 1939 when it was known as the "Sepulveda Parkway."
In the improvement of the San Diego Freeway through the Veterans Administration Center, it was necessary to acquire property in the name of the County of Los Angeles for the realignment of Wilshire Boulevard and for the widening of Federal Avenue, the reconstruction of which has been carried out by the State Division of Highways. The necessary grants of property from the Federal Government were secured under the provisions of Section 17 of the Federal Highway Act of November 9, 1921, as amended, 42 Statutes 216. The Federal Government transferred a total of 54.2 acres of which 46.6 acres was to the State of California for the San Diego Freeway, and 7.6 acres was to County of Los Angeles for the improvement of Wilshire Boulevard and Federal Avenue. The State and county received from the Federal Government for this project land worth well in excess of $2,000,000. The State, in return, has carried out considerable construction and relocation work for the benefit of the veterans' facility. The grant to the County of Los Angeles provided for the vacation of San Vicente Boulevard by the County of Los Angeles through the Veterans Administration Center whereby 6.6 acres would be added to the usable area of the veterans' facility.
As for Sepulveda Canyon, Sepulveda Blvd, and I-405: For centuries the
region’s native Tongva people had hiked a faint footpath through
Sepulveda Canyon, and in 1769 the soldiers and clergy of Spain’s Portola
expedition followed that ancient trade route on their way to Monterey. Trail
became road in 1875, when the two wheat barons of the San Fernando Valley,
Isaac Lankershim and Isaac Newton Van Nuys, widened the footpath to allow for
the passage of sturdy wagons laden with grain and bound for ships docked at the
Santa Monica Pier. But when the Southern Pacific soon lowered its freight
rates, the wheat ranchers instead sent their harvest by train to San Pedro. The
new, neglected road eroded into the hillsides. Development in the San Fernando
Valley during the 1920s persuaded the city and county to rebuild the road for
automobiles. Traffic was overwhelming the two established routes between the
Valley and the Basin, Cahuenga Pass and San Fernando Road, both of which were
out of the way for residents of faraway Van Nuys and Owensmouth. New Sepulveda
Boulevard – a 50-mile highway stretching between San Fernando and Long
Beach – would provide the Valley with a more direct link to the Basin and
harbor beyond at San Pedro Bay. Construction lasted several years and
culminated with the opening of a 650-foot tunnel beneath the summit at
Mulholland Drive, an event the city celebrated with a grand Spanish-style
fiesta. Despite the festivities, by the time traffic started flowing in
September 1930, the new Sepulveda Canyon Road was already inadequate. Five
years later the state spent $275,000 to pave it, and by the late 1950s traffic
engineers developed a new construction project that just might keep traffic
flowing freely over Sepulveda Pass: Tear Sepulveda Canyon apart and then
rebuild it to allow a superhighway to pass through. Beginning in August 1960,
earthmovers carved a gorge 1,800 feet wide and 260 feet deep through the
mountains, accomplishing in two years what might take natural erosional forces
two million. The bulldozers' total haul: 13 million cubic yards of slate,
shale, and dirt. Workers then built massive retaining walls to keep the
unnaturally steep slopes from slipping and reconfigured the area's natural
drainage through a series of culverts. By 1962, an eight-lane concrete freeway
with a maximum grade of 5½% sliced through the mountains.
A November 2010 briefing on the I-405 HOV construction in the Sepulveda Pass included these wonderful photos of the construction of the original Mulholland Bridge. More photos can be found at the LA Times.
A Metro article on the same bridge noted that the bridge was completed on April 4, 1960. The main portion of Mulholland Drive—westward from the Cahuenga Pass in Hollywood past the Sepulveda Pass—opened in 1924 under a different name: the Mulholland Highway. It was built by a consortium of Hollywood Hills landowners. Their goal was to bring development to the Hollywood Hills and make a few dollars for themselves. In May 1958, the State Division of Highways—this preceded the creation of Caltrans—called for bids on a $10-million highway construction project. Besides closing a 4.1-mile gap in US 101 and funding other work on the San Diego Freeway, the 1958 contract required the relocation of 1.1 miles of Mulholland Drive south. Once moved, Mulholland Drive would cross a new 579-foot-long bridge: Mulholland Drive Bridge. When completed, relocating Mulholland Drive and building Mulholland Drive Bridge cost $1,824,000. In June 1960, bids were opened for a $14-million contract to extend the San Diego Freeway 7.4 miles from Brentwood to Valley Vista Bl in the San Fernando Valley. Mulholland Drive Bridge would finally span a freeway. The original bridge was torn down starting in July 2011.
The segment of I-405 between West Los Angeles and the Valley opened to traffic on December 21, 1962. When it happened, San Fernando Valley realtors took out a full page ad in the Santa Monica Evening Outlook heralding the effect in travel savings and increased accessibility between the valley communities and West LA. Public response to the new freeway was instantaneous as 82,000 motor vehicles diverted from parallel mountain roads to the new facility in the first full day of operation. The Average Daily Traffic on Sepulveda Blvd dropped from 42,000 to 3,000! Peak travel time was cut in half, from 14 minutes to 7 minutes (and many people in 2013 would be ecstatic about a travel time of 15 minutes for the pass!).
According to the LA Times, I-405 in the Sepulveda Pass was a bypass for Sepulveda Boulevard (former Route 7), opened in 1935 and was hailed in the Los Angeles Times as a "new and wondrous highway" over the mountains, vastly superior to the overcrowded Cahuenga Pass and Laurel Canyon. The pre-405 Sepulveda Blvd consisted of numerous hairpin curves, which claimed 65 lives during the 1950s alone. More than 40,000 vehicles a day passed through the tunnel under Mulholland Blvd. Northbound traffic routinely backed up to Sunset Boulevard. The Sepulveda Pass project begin in August 1960. Statistics on the project included: Eighteen million cubic yards of earth removed! Ninety thousand cubic yards of concrete poured! Six million pounds of steel holding it together! A 30-story building could be hidden within the depths of the so-called Big Cut. It was opened on December 21, 1962.
In November 2015, Curbed LA reported on a proposal by the
Libertarian-leaning Reason Foundation to construct a bypass tunnels from I-10
to US 101. There were three options: From Route 1 to US 101 roughly along
Reseda (roughly the unbuilt portion of Route 14, but with a terminus at
I-10/Route 1), under I-405, or from the termination of Route 187 (Venice) to
Laurel Canyon (roughly the unbuilt southern portion of Route 170). The ideal
route Reason offers would travel from Santa Monica, underneath Topanga State
Park, to Tarzana. If they have trouble tunneling through a state park land
(spoiler alert: they will), there are two alternatives—one tunnels under
the 405 (note that a tunnel here is also part of Measure M under consideration
in 2016) and the other under Laurel Canyon. If built, a six-lane tunnel would
carry an estimated 109,000 cars per day to and from the valley, producing $9.7
billion in revenue over 40 years. CurbedLA noted, regarding this proposal,
"They're cute plans, but only a fool would run this bureaucratic marathon for a
transit plan that looks backwards to cars instead of forwards to mass transit
and fossil-fuel-free options." The estimated cost for all their tunnels would
be $700 billion.
Both sections in the San Fernando Valley (from Burbank to Nordhoff, and from Nordhoff to I-5) opened to traffic on April 19, 1963.
[Editor's Note: Yes, I know this section goes N to S, unlike most of the other pages. Reversing it would be quite a bit of work, given the amount of material and history. One of these days....]
San Fernando Valley
In September 2000, the California Transportation Commission considered a proposal (TCRP Project 51) to add an auxiliary lane and widen the ramp through the I-405/US 101 freeway interchange in Sherman Oaks. For phases 1 and 2, the request was for $4 million, with a total estimated cost of $34 million. The phase 3 request was $4.2 million. Phase 1 added a northbound auxilliary freeway lane from Mulholland Drive to Greenleaf Avenue, and was completed around January 2003. The third phase was completed in 2004 and widened the eastbound connector to the US 101 to two lanes. The third phase involves permanently closing the ramp that loops motorists from eastbound Ventura Boulevard onto the northbound I-405 near the Sherman Oaks Galleria. The reconstructed approach routes motorists onto southbound Sepulveda Boulevard and onto Greenleaf Avenue, where they will either drive through a tunnel under the freeway and onto the NB I-405, or stay in the right lane and connect to US 101. It was completed in late 2007.
There is also work afoot to address another
problem at that interchange -- specifically, the connector between southbound
I-405 and the northbound US 101. This might involve construction of an elevated
two-lane connector. There are five options currently under consideration, some
of which could affect nearby homes or take out part of the Sepulveda Basin
wildlife refuge. The connection between two freeways is now just one lane and
often backs up on I-405. The project would build a two-lane connector across
the Sepulveda Dam spillway, and could possibly include changes to southbound
I-405 and the southbound US-101 interchange, and the Burbank Boulevard
on-and-off-ramps. Built in the 1950s, the freeway connector was designed to
handle up to 1,500 vehicles an hour but now has been swamped with 1,790 autos
per hour by 2008. By 2015, morning rush hours are expected to draw up to 2,075
vehicles per hour to the freeway connector as the state population increases.
One of the three possible alternatives reconstructs the Burbank Boulevard
on-ramp to southbound I-405 to pass beneath the new two-lane connector, at an
estimated cost of $86.4 million. However, Burbank Boulevard would lose access
to both directions of US 101. As a result, the Los Angeles Department of
Transportation opposes the plan. Closing that freeway access will send traffic
farther down to Van Nuys Boulevard or through the congested intersection of
Sepulveda and Burbank boulevards, said Ken Husting, a senior transportation
engineer with LADOT. With this alternative, LADOT engineers want to see other
roadway improvements to increase mobility, such as building a full interchange
at Hayvenhurst Avenue to US 101. The other alternatives stretch into the
225-acre Sepulveda Basin wildlife refuge - home to various species of birds,
from burrowing owls to red-tailed hawks and Canada geese - within the Sepulveda
Flood Control Basin. A second proposal, estimated at $117 million, maintains
access to US 101 from Burbank Boulevard, but it requires a new loop on-ramp
that encroaches on 2.64 acres of wildlife refuge sitting north of Burbank
Boulevard and west of I-405. The plan also requires reconstruction of the
bridge between Burbank Boulevard and I-405. A third alternative, costing about
$88.8 million (and supported by Homeowners of Encino) leaves access to US 101
open from Burbank Boulevard but takes 2.92 acres of the wildlife refuge. This
plan excludes reconstructing an existing overcrossing between Burbank
Boulevard. The Army Corps of Engineer oppose the 2nd and 3rd alternatives, as
do environmental groups. The plans will be discussed at the June 2008 CTC
In September 2008, the CTC considered the above project for future consideration of funding. The cover information noted that the project will replace the existing connector by constructing a new connector/bridge over the Sepulveda Dam. The project is not fully funded. The project is programmed in the 2008 State Transportation Improvement Program with regional improvement program shares for $7,010,000 for environmental. The total estimated project cost is $165 million. Construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2013-14, depending on the availability of funds.
In April 2012, it was reported that widening and retrofitting of the
Sepulveda Overpass was going to begin in May 2012. For about a year, left turns
from Fiume Walk and the Southbound Valley Vista off-ramp onto northbound
Sepulveda will be restricted, and left turns from northbound Sepulveda onto
Fiume Walk will also be restricted. Additionally, the left turn pocket onto the
southbound Valley Vista on-ramp will be shortened and Sepulveda will go to two
lanes in each direction near the overpass. Meanwhile, two crosswalks will be
eliminated—the crosswalk across Sepulveda at Fiume Walk and the crosswalk
across Fiume which, along with sidewalk on the west side of Sepulveda, will
close three months after the start of construction.
In January 2010, the CTC approved relinquishment of right of way adjacent to Route 405 in the city of Los Angeles at Dickens Street, consisting of a collateral facility.
In June 2012, the CTC relinquished right of way in the city of Los Angeles along Route 405 on Dickens Street, consisting of a collateral facility.
Northbound, there are plans to add an HOV lane between I-10 and US 101. In September 2000, the California Transportation Commission considered a proposal (Traffic Congestion Relief Program Project 39) to add the northbound HOV lane over Sepulveda Pass, from I-10 to US 101. Phase 1 of the proposal was estimated to cost $15 million, with a total cost of $336 million. This is TCRP Project #39, and has an estimated completion date sometime in the year 2016, with construction starting in 2006. The desired goal is 6 mix-flow and 2 HOV lanes in each direction, but initially there will be one HOV lane and five mixed flow lanes. It was requested by the LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The project will provide a continuous HOV system on Route I-405 by closing a gap in the current system. Estimates to add the HOV lane range from $500 million to $750 million. Work on the environmental phase of the project began in Fiscal Year 2000-01. Severe fiscal crises in the following years resulted in the temporary suspension of various transportation funding sources, including TCRP. Due to the prospective lack of funds to proceed beyond the Environmental phase, the Department delayed work on this project. However, with the appropriation of Proposition 42 funds, and $130,000,000 in new federal earmark funds (SAFETEA-LU), the environmental phase began. During this phase, the Department identifies individual segments for construction. The Federal earmark funds of $130,000,000, along with the remaining un-programmed $75 million of TCRP funds will be used to deliver one or more these segments. The schedule and funding plan are for environmental only. This phase is scheduled to complete in July 2008.
A 2006 bond measure provided additional funding for completion of the northbound HOV route system. This has gone through a lot of funding hurdles, especially in relation to funds from the 2006 Corridor Mobility Improvement Account. Originally, the project was not recommended because it was believed construction would start too late. The decision was later rescinded, and the project was approved for $730 million in funding. The total cost of the project is $950 million. As of March 2007, Caltrans had five proposals for this construction:
Many of these alternatives are engendering quite a bit of controversy,
especially Alternative 3, which would involve the taking of a significant
amount of property, including churches, hotels, and multi-family residences in
an affulent area. Specifically, Caltrans has noted that the most extensive plan
(Alternative 3, about $911 million) takes up to seven Sherman Oaks homes and
thirty Brentwood properties. This alternative is present because the narrower
SB lanes have a higher accident rate. Alternative 2 (about $649 million) would
still take the seven Sherman Oaks homes, and portions of about forty, and leave
the southbound side of I-405 unchanged.
In July 2007, Caltrans released a modification to the plan that appeared more acceptable. This modification would add a mixed flow lane SB between Skirball Center and Waterford St., close the SB I-405 on-ramp from EB Sunset Blvd, reconfiguring the intersection to direct traffic to use the SB entrance just N of Sunset Blvd., and realigning portions of Sepulveda Blvd. There would also be realingment of the Skirball Center ramps.There would also be relocation of the Valley Vista ramps SB. The option would also move I-405 east, permitting a simple narrowing of Church Lane, instead of relocation (and thus saving a lot of properties). In August 2007, the CTC approved programming $27,000,000 in new TCRP funds for Plans, Specifications and Estimates (PS&E) for this project, and changed the Phase 2 completion date to FY10/11. Without widening, traffic on I-405, described as one of the worst in the nation, is forecast to increase 46% from 2005 to 2031.
In February 2008, it was announced that Caltrans had decided on a plan that
will result in only a few homes being taken, in the vicinity of Valley Vista
Blvd. This appears to be the less-severe option (the July 2007 modification),
which itself has had a few modifications.
In June 2008, the CTC approved the selected alternative for the Route 405 construction. The alternative selected was Alternative 2: which widens the facility solely to add a NB HOV lane. This alternative will still take seven Sherman Oaks homes, and portions of about forty, but it will leave the southbound side of I-405 unchanged. The NB roadway will meet current design standards for lane, median, and shoulder widths except at the I-10/I-405 interchange and between Moraga Dr. and Sunset Blvd interchanges. Standard lanes consist of an 11' half median, a 12' HOV lane, a 1' HOV buffer, 5 12' mixed-flow lanes, and a 10' outside shoulder. The selected alternative would also widen the SB I-405 to meet current design standards for lane, median, and shoulder widths at certain sections. SB standardization would be within the following segments: Olympic Blvd and Waterford St, and between Bel Air Crest to the north end of the project. Local interchanges within the project limits would be reconstructed and improved notably at Wilshire Blvd, Sunset Blvd, and Skirball Center Drive. There is the goal that wall designs be compatible with the surrounding community. There are also plans to improve wildlife crossings.
In early 2009, it looked like the project might be out of luck, due to a
$730 million shortfall. The project was supposed to begin in mid-May, largely
paid for with bond revenue awarded in 2007. However, that money was temporarily
rescinded in December 2008 as the Legislature struggled to close a $42 billion
deficit. As of April 2009, the freeway project has about $378 million -
including the $200 million in stimulus money - enough to continue the project
for 15 months. About $13 million in local money and $48 million from a state
traffic relief program are secured for the lane. The federal government has
kicked in $117 million, separate from the stimulus money, contingent on
construction starting in 2009. The LA MTA eventually decided to start the
project, hoping that they could come up with the money later. Although the MTA
has just a fraction of the project's $1 billion price tag, construction of the
10-mile northbound car-pool lane should begin in summer 2009. The project,
approved by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority board,
is expected to create some 18,000 construction jobs and be completed in 2013.
The MTA still needs to raise $614 million — money originally approved by
voters in a bond measure but withheld by the state as it grappled with its
massive budget deficit — to complete the project. In case the remaining
money never materializes, the Metro board agreed to set aside $30 million to
cover the costs of suspending or ending construction contracts. In early May
2009, MTA will award a $712 million construction contract to Kiewit Pacific Co.
for the widening project. With $372 million in hand, there is enough money to
keep the project going for 15 months. That will pay to relocate water, gas and
phone lines and work on some freeway ramp widening.
In April 2009, the CTC approved funding this project (as a loan against future bonds) from 2009 Stimulus funds.
Construction on this project started in January 2010. The project includes a 10-mile HOV lane on the northbound I-405 between I-10 and US-101; removal and replacement of the Skirball Center, Sunset Blvd. and Mulholland Dr. bridges; realingment of 27 on and off ramps; widening of 13 existing underpasses and structures; and construction of approximately 18 miles of retaining wall and sound wall. The construction work is quite complicated. Every task - from setting up K-rails and street cones to excavating foothills and readjusting freeway lanes - must be managed between 10p and 6a. Crews must minimize the noise and ensure that their lights don't shine into windows or along wildlife corridors. They must also avoid the inordinate number of oil and gas lines under the route and utility poles alongside the route.
In May 2010, work began on the demolition of the Sunset Blvd bridge. Mostly this has been preparation work: relocation of utilities, restriping of lanes, etc. It was estimated the bridge demolition would begin in mid-May, but as of late June no demolition had started. The plan is to keep the bridge open as it is rebuilt. The southern half of the bridge was completed in July 2010.
In October 2010, demolition work began on the Skirball Center bridge. Demolition went fast, and was the northern half was completed in October 2010. There are two options being considered regarding the Skirball Center ramps. The first would keep the ramps where they are. The second would relocate the SB ramps south of the current Skirball bridge. The preferred option, based on traffic analysis, is the relocation of the ramps. This has the additional benefits of adding a lane to Skirball Center Drive E of I-405, adding a sidewalk to the W side of Skirball Center Drive from the new Mulholland Bridge to the Skirball bridge, adding a sidewalk to the N side of the bridge, and having more space for bicyclists on the bridge. There will also be new signage directing visitors to the Skirball Cultural Center, a dedicated northbound right-turn lane between new SB ramps and Skirball Bridge, bicycle lanes on Sepulveda Bl between Skirball Bridge and new southbound ramps, and southbound hook ramps that provide greater ramp storage capacity. There will also be a dedicated right-turn lane from northbound Sepulveda Bl onto new southbound I-405 on-ramp, and a dedicated double left-turn lane from southbound Sepulveda Bl onto southbound I-405.
In September 2010, it was reported that Caltrans and Metro have finally decided to alter the way the impressively high, 1959-era Mulholland Drive bridge is replaced during the I-405 widening project: they will build an all-new bridge before they tear down the old bridge. This actually saves $4 million to $10 million over juggling the two projects. Coming from the west, drivers would enter the new bridge in the same place they do now, then angle slightly south across the freeway before ending up on Skirball Center Drive. Only after the new span was completed would the old one come down, thus reducing traffic-related inconvenience during construction. However, those plans were changed in early 2011 back to the original approach due to complaints from those in the area. There was concern from residents and environmentalists about increased traffic congestion and threats to wildlife; there were also demands that the new bridge be designed by a world-class architect (which was the deal-breaker, cost-wise, for Metro).
In October 2010, an article was published that highlights the problems in
this construction. Consider utility relocation. Shell, Chevron, Exxon and Mobil
each have oil pipelines through the pass. SCS Energy has a natural gas pipeline
to UCLA. There are fiber optics lines. Southern California Gas Company and
Southern California Edison bring gas and electricity to their customers through
the pass. Verizon and ATT connect residences and business via the Sepulveda
Pass, and the Metropolitan Water District has a 96-inch-diameter water line
under Sepulveda Boulevard. Some of those utilities run along and through the
three bridges to be replaced—Sunset, Skirball and
Mulholland—complicating their demolition and reconstruction.
In December 2010, it was reported that the project will involve reconfiguration of the southbound Wilshire Blvd interchange, adding flyover ramps to eliminate the intercrossing of exiting and entering traffic. Currently, vehicles trying to get off the freeway onto Wilshire must jockey with other vehicles entering the freeway. Under the new configuration, the on ramps and off ramps are completely separate.
In May 2012, it was reported that the rampture would begin in June
2012. This is the first 90 day closure of the Wilshire ramps. This closure
includes the Westbound Wilshire on-ramp to Northbound I-405, and the Northbound
I-405 off-ramp to Westbound Wilshire. The six other Wilshire ramps will be
closed consecutively, some two at a time, between 14 and 90 days. The image
below provides additional details:
In July 2011 (the weekend of July 15-16), "Carmageddon" has been predicted as Caltrans closes the entire I-405 freeway roughly between Sunset Blvd and US 101 in order to demolish half of the Mulholland Bridge. Details here. The following is a description of how the southbound portion of the bridge is being demolished:
Debris from the demolished bridges has been used for the construction of the Metro Orange Line in Chatsworth.
The second "carmageddon" occured the weekend of September 29, 2012.
Larry Scholnick provided a good summary of all the work involved in this simple HOV lane addition: The basic goal of the project is to install a northbound HOV (carpool) lane from I-10 (where the NB HOV lane becomes a regular, mixed-flow lane) to US-101 (where the NB HOV lane resumes). No additional regular, mixed-flow lanes will be built; there will continue to be 5/6 NB through lanes (5 South of Skirball Center and 6 North of Skirball Center) and 5/4/5 SB through lanes (5 north of Skirball Center, 4 between Skirball Center and Waterford, and 5 south of Waterford). At first glance it seems like the freeway should only be widened by 12 feet. However, there are currently no center breakdown lanes on either side of the freeway, so this project will add those lanes. At second glance it seems like the freeway will be widened by (12+10+10) 32 feet. However, the existing lanes are about a foot narrower than the current 12-foot standard, so all 10+ existing lanes (5+ NB plus 4+ SB plus one SB-HOV) will we widened by a foot, so the total widening will be over 40 feet. For the section between Olympic and Santa Monica Blvds this is comparatively easy because there is extra right-of-way that was originally intended for the connectors to the (never-built) Beverly Hills (CA-2) Freeway. The interchange with Wilshire Blvd is a full cloverleaf, made up of four onramps and four offramps. Each ramp has a tight turning radius, typical of 1960's construction. In order to eliminate weaving, and to modernize the interchange, all 8 ramps will be torn down and replaced. The ramps will be replaced in pairs; WB-NB & NB-EB will be replaced first. When complete there will be flyover ramps that will eliminate weaving; EB-NB will fly over NB-WB, and SB-EB will fly over WB-SB. The new ramps that include bridges over Sepulveda will leave room for a wider Sepulveda to go under. Every bridge where the freeway crosses OVER a surface street (Exposition, Pico, Olympic, Santa Monica, Ohio, Wilshire, Constitution, Montana, Church, Getty Center, Sepulveda near Getty Center, Bel Air Crest, Sepulveda near Valley Vista and perhaps Ventura) will be widened. All onramps and offramps that are not being replaced will be realigned to the widened freeway. Each bridge where the freeway crosses UNDER a surface street (Sunset, Skirball Center, and Mulholland) will be replaced with a bridge that is wider in both dimensions – room for the wider freeway below and more lanes on the surface street above. In each case the old bridge will be sliced in half (lengthwise), leaving half of the bridge standing while the other half is demolished and replaced. Once the first new half is complete, traffic will be switched to the new half and the other half will be demolished and replaced. The NB Montana offramp will be eliminated, just as its SB counterpart (Waterford) was eliminated several years ago. The convoluted NB ramps at Getty Center will be replaced by regular 'diamond' ramps, similar to the SB ramps at Getty Center. The SB ramps at Skirball Center will be replaced by a new half- interchange along Sepulveda, just north of Mountaingate; the new SB 'Skirball Center' ramps will be about 1/2 mile south of the Skirball Center bridge. In most areas, the centerline of the freeway will not shift significantly; the freeway will be widened by approximately equal amounts on each side; however, since there is no room for widening on the west side of the freeway through the community of Brentwood Glen (where Church Lane, the only north-south road through the area is right next to the west side of the freeway), the entire widening through this area will be on the east side of the freeway. Since Sepulveda is right next to the east side of the freeway, the hillside east of Sepulveda between Montana and Sunset has been torn down; most of the lanes of Sepulveda will be where the hillside was and the freeway widening will cover most of the existing lanes of Sepulveda.
In February 2013, a replacement on-ramp at Skirball Drive to I-405 SB opened. This new ramp is 2,000 feet south of the Skirball Bridge, and is one of the key roadway improvements in this billion dollar freeway widening project. The new ramp provides greater ramp storage capacity for vehicles entering and exiting I-405, as well as providing dedicated turn-lanes on Sepulveda Boulevard for cars entering and exiting the freeway. The construction also provides new bike routes on Sepulveda Boulevard between Skirball Center Drive and the new southbound on- and off-ramps, as well as a simpler design for the Sepulveda Boulevard/Skirball Center Drive intersection, resulting in a safer intersection.
In April 2013, it was reported that the project was behind schedule. Work on
the end sections was proceeding according to schedule, and the project team has
achieved a substantial amount of work to date, including new Wilshire on and
off-ramps, a new and wider Sunset Bridge, I-10 interchange improvements,
Sepulveda Boulevard improvements and a new on-ramp at Skirball. By the end of
2013, the project anticipates completing all bridges and utility work will be
nearly complete with project ramps, underpasses, soundwalls and retaining
walls. However, structural failure of miles of new sound walls that had to be
demolished and rebuilt, a legal wrangle over the placement of ramps near the
Getty Center and the complex logistics of finding and relocating more than a
dozen utility lines under Sepulveda Boulevard have created delays. Tthe project
is now slated to take at least a year longer than first anticipated and cost
about $100 million more than the originally budgeted $1 billion. Officials now
aim to complete the bulk of the project by June 2014, with work on the
problematic middle segment between Montana Avenue and Sunset Boulevard lasting
perhaps until fall 2014. The delays so frustrated Elon Musk of SpaceX that he
donated $50K to an advocacy group (although some reports made it seem as if he
donated to speed up construction).
In June 2013, it was reported that the construction project is reportedly $100 million over budget and to cover the cost overrun the Metro board asked staff to look into implementing a congestion pricing program for the 405 HOV lanes.
In August 2013, it was reported that Metro is seriously exploring the idea
of a subway/expressway tunnel(s) under I-405 freeway. Theproject has been
fast-tracked; in fact,the transit agency could be looking for funding partners
within a year. Work could begin within 2 to 3 years. To build a tunnel or two
of them under the freeway it could take 4 to 5 years. The funding would be from
a private-public partnership which could involve big international construction
and financial companies. Without such a Public Private Partnership (P3) this
would have taken 20 to 30 years to pull off. The estimated cost of such a
project is in the area of $10 Billion. There is Measure R tax money of one
billion that could be used. The other 9 would come from private investors (P3)
who would get their money back from expressway tolls if such a roadway is part
of the project and/or fees for subway service. The present thinking is a
train/expressway system that uses two tunnels or one very large one. The first
phase would be through the 10 mile Sepulveda Pass, but it would eventually be
expanded from Sylmar, in the San Fernando Valley, all the way through to LAX.
That would be a 28 mile system. It could be anywhere from 60 to 90 feet below
the surface. Given the steep incline and decline in the pass distances would
vary from one part to another since trains need to run on a flat surface. The
diameter of a tunnel might be 60 to 70 feet depending on whether there is one
or two. Unlike the tunneling done for the Red Line the burrowing equipment is
much different and considerably improved than when our first subway was built.
Burrowing so far underground would also limit disruption to construction weary
residents in the pass. There are no fault lines to present quake problems.
In early November 2013, work on the Wilshire ramps was completed and all on- and off-ramps were opened. In late November, the Montana offramp from the NB I-405 was permanently closed (and its removal was started).
In late May 2014, the HOV lanes opened for service, although landscaping, signage, and retaining wall work still remained. Caltrans took the opportunity to provide some statistics on the project. Enough concrete was used on the project to build four Staple Centers, enough dirt was moved to fill 100,000 dump trucks and enough rebar installed to build 15,000 Volkswagen beetles. They also provided the following summary of the improvements:
In November 2016, it was reported that the Metropolitan Transportation
Authority has agreed to pay nearly $300 million more to the contractor of the
I-405 Freeway widening project, capping a years-long dispute over
responsibility for schedule delays, design changes and cost overruns. The
settlement will push the cost of the controversial Sepulveda Pass project above
$1.6 billion, about 55% higher than the original budget. The $297.8-million
agreement follows years of disagreements between Kiewit Corp. and Metro over
how the freeway widening was managed. Kiewit has said in legal filings that
Metro’s repeated changes to the project’s design and failure to
identify and relocate utilities added significantly to delays.
In March 2015, there were reports that the net improvements from the I-405
Sepulveda Pass project were negligible. A traffic study by Seattle-based
traffic analytics firm Inrix reported that auto speeds during the afternoon
crawl on the NB I-405 post-project are the same or slightly slower as
pre-project; in fact, the 35-minute tangle between the 10 and the 101 is
actually a minute longer. SB I-405 is so bad, post-improvements, that when
Caltrans issues its "worst bottleneck" rankings in August, unofficial data
suggest that the 10-mile stretch of I-405 between the Valley and the Westside
could be the worst freeway segment in California. The problem is that a number
of studies have shown that carpooling is declining even as carpool lanes are
added, often to the exclusion of other major transportation projects.
In June 2015, the results of another study were reported. This study was
commissioned by Metro from Systems Metric Group and was the first to compare
traffic flow on I-405 before and after the Sepulveda Pass project that added a
northbound carpool lane, rebuilt and widened bridges and on/off ramps and made
other key improvements. The study showed that: (•) The number of Freeway
Service Patrol reported accidents has dropped, with 15% fewer Freeway Service
Patrol reported accidents in February 2015 compared to Feb. 2009; (•) The
afternoon weekday rush hour now runs from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m. compared to 2 p.m.
to 9 p.m. before the project, showing that traffic is at its most congested for
two less hours on weekdays; (•) Vehicle capacity on northbound I-405 has
increased from 10,000 vehicles per hour to 11,700 vehicles per hour at peak
times, a 15% increase in vehicle capacity and 30+% increase in people traveling
on this section of I-405; (•) Total travel times are slightly lower
between I-10 and US 101 except during the peak of the afternoon commute (about
4:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m.) when travel times are slightly higher, due in part to a
bottleneck backing up traffic further north at the I-405 and Route 118
interchange; (•) Travel times on the NB 405 vary less, making travel times
are more predictable; and (•) Traffic on major streets near I-405 —
including Sepulveda, Sunset, Santa Monica, Pico and Ventura — is 20 to
25% lower since the end of construction. However, the study also showed that
commute times during rush hours increased by about a minute, due to a
well-documented phenomenon called "triple convergence." People who might have
otherwise decided to travel by a different mode, a different route or at a
different time make the decision to use the newly expanded freeway based on the
assumption that it has improved. It's called "induced demand." So even though
Northbound lanes of the freeway can now handle 15% more traffic every hour -
that many more cars are now clogging it. Unfortunately, it is hard to factor in
that "induced demand" when predicting traffic flows in an expansion project
like the I-405 improvement. In its report, Metro said congestion would have
increased 36% if the project hadn't been completed.
In March 2016, the Los Angeles MTA presented its full proposal for what
transit lines could be built -- and when -- if Los Angeles County voters
approve a half-cent sales tax increase in November 2016. This proposal included
funding for I-105 Express Lanes from I-405 to I-605. The project would
re-stripe the existing HOV lane to create 2 Express Lanes in each direction for
a total of 16 miles, while maintaining current number of mixed flow lanes in
In March 2016, the Los Angeles MTA presented its full proposal for what
transit lines could be built -- and when -- if Los Angeles County voters
approve a half-cent sales tax increase in November 2016. This proposal included
funding for some form of Sepulveda Pass Transit Corridor. The specific approach
was not specified: it could be a new high capacity transit mode connecting the
Orange Line Van Nuys station underneath the Sepulveda Pass, with a station at
UCLA, terminating at Wilshire/Westwood Purple Line station. Approximately 8.8
miles. The project might also include restriping the HOV lanes within the
existing Right of Way to add 2 ExpressLanes in each direction (while
maintaining the current 4 Mixed-Flow Lanes), from US-101 to I-10 for a total of
10 miles. There have also been rumors of a private vehicle toll tunnel under
the Sepulveda Pass.
West Los Angeles
In 2008, a project was completed that widened the freeway and added southbound HOV lanes between Waterford St and 0.5 km S of I-10. This section of the freeway was origianlly constructed on a fill segment between 1958 and 1963. It was an eight-lane facility consisting of four 12 ft lanes, with 8-10 ft shoulders and a 22 ft median. Later restriping reduced this to a non-standard 11 ft lanes, with the median being used to add two mixed flow lanes and a 4 ft non-standard half-median. The project widened the existing freeway to add an 11.8 ft HOV lane, and a 2 ft buffer next to the median. The five existing mixed flow lanes were restriped even narrower as four 10.8 ft lanes and one 11.8 ft lane. A 9.8 ft outside shoulder, and a 3.3 ft half median was also provided. To eliminate weaving conditions, two auxiliary lanes were added. One was added upstream of the SB off-ramp to WB Wilshire Blvd, and included widening of the off-ramp. The second was added between the SB I-405 on-ramp from Santa Monica Blvd and the SB I-405 off-ramp at Olympic Blvd. The current auxiliary lane between Santa Monica Blvd and Wilshire Blvd was maintained. Additionally, the Waterford Street on-ramp SB was closed. The total cost for this project is $74.4 million, with an estimated completion of August 2006 (although this date was not met). This is TCRP Project 52. It was completed around 2008.
In June 2017, the CTC was informed that, for TCRP Project 52 - Route 405; HOV and Auxiliary Lanes – Waterford Avenue to Route 10 (PPNO T0520), the authorized amount was $25,000,000, of which $9,648,000 was previously programmed and allocated to the project. Due to the suspension of TCRP funding in 2003, this project was delivered with other State funds, leaving $15,352,000 in unallocated TCRP funds on the project. In June 2016, the Commission approved a TCRP policy for projects programmed in Tier 2 and in January 2017, funding for Tier 2 programmed projects became available. TCRP 52 is currently on the Tier 2 list for $15,352,000. The Department and Metro propose to amend Project 52 to de-program $15,352,000 in TCRP savings and update the project funding plan and transfer the funds to fund TCRP Project 38.2, Los Angeles -San Fernando Valley Transit Extension and TCRP 50, Route 71.
In 2008-2009, Caltrans widened I-405 from ten to twelve lanes from Route 90
to I-10. This project added one HOV lane northbound. It resulted in signficant
changes in the Culver Blvd offramp. The the previous NB exit that deposited
Culver traffic at Braddock and Sawtelle was removed; it was replaced by a
direct offramp at Culver. A similar change was made for southbound traffic. The
lanes were opened in November 2009. The $167 million widening project took five
years to complete, and added carpool lanes and exit lanes on the freeway. The
five main traffic lanes in each direction were widened from 10 feet wide to 12
feet, and the often-uneven asphalt surface next to the center divider was
replaced with concrete.
In 1989, the CTC relinquished roadway that predated Route 405 (i.e., former Route 7): Sepulveda Blvd between I-405 and Slauson.
In December 2013, the CTC authorized relinquishment of right of way in the city of Culver City adjacent to Route 405 between Sawtelle Boulevard and Barman Avenue, consisting of a reconstructed city street.
In October 2014, the CTC authorized additional funding for the project in Culver City, from La Tijera Boulevard on-ramp to Jefferson Boulevard off-ramp, that will construct an auxiliary lane to improve traffic flow and reduce congestion. The project widens and seismically retrofits the Centinela Avenue Undercrossing (No. 53-1253) and the Sepulveda Boulevard Undercrossing (No. 53-1254 ). The Howard Hughes Parkway on-ramp and the Sepulveda Boulevard off-ramp will also be realigned and widened as part of the project. The project also constructs retaining walls to accommodate the widened roadway. The project relieves congestion by improving traffic operations.
In August 2015, the CTC authorized $14,130,000 for a project in Los Angeles County, on I-405 in and near the cities of Inglewood, Culver City, and Los Angeles, from 0.2 mile north of El Segundo Boulevard to Venice Boulevard (Route 187) that will rehabilitate 56 lane miles of pavement by replacing cracked slabs, grinding concrete pavement, overlaying ramp and shoulder asphalt pavement, installing new guardrail, and paving miscellaneous areas. This project is necessary to extend pavement service life and improve ride quality.
There are continual discussions about adding an interchange at Arbor-Vitae. Based on an article in the Daily Breeze, the plan is based on a much earlier plan to construct a new interchange along I-405 at Arbor Vitae Street. The project was original initiated by Los Angeles World Airports (Los Angeles Department of Airports at the time) in 1976 to provide an alternate East-West access route between I-405 and the Los Angeles International Airport. This project was part of a larger project proposed in 1980 and scheduled to be constructed in 1984. However, the Arbor Vitae Interchange had been postponed multiple times due to funding considerations. The current version of the project entailing the south half of the interchange and widening of the Arbor Vitae Bridge was going to be constructed in 2002. However, the delivery of this project was postponed for three reasons: First, opposition from local residents, who live adjacent to the proposed project, and the Inglewood Unified School District Board was prevalent during the public comment periods; second, the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) did not support the construction of the full interchange, and led to the current south half version of the interchange. Third, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) would only approve an environmental document that includes the full interchange. It lacks support from local elected officials. At this time, this project is programmed through the Project Approval/Environmental Document [PA/ED] phase (the current phase). There is only partial funding currently programmed for the construction of this proposed project; an additional $37 million is needed to construct this project. If approved, the project will be funded from the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) and the Regional Transportation Improvement Program (RTIP). The proposal called for a new south-half interchange, including a southbound on-ramp to I-405 from a widened Arbor Vitae overpass, as well as a northbound off-ramp from the freeway to the street. The project’s purpose is to reduce congestion at the Century Boulevard and Manchester Boulevard interchanges by creating along Arbor Vitae Street, from the I-405, a new direct vehicle access to and from the Hollywood Park Casino, the University of West Los Angeles, the Forum, and Centinela Hospital. The project would result in the agency taking nine homes and two businesses - down from roughly 50 homes under an earlier plan, which also encroached on an Inglewood school site, according to planning documents. A later meeting indicated a fair amount of opposition to the plan. In September 2010, it was reported that Caltrans had cancelled plans for this interchange. Specifically, Caltrans chose the "no-build" alternative - which was based on several factors, including the project's anticipated effects on traffic conditions along local streets, community opposition as well as funding. The agency needed roughly another $30 million to fund the estimated $82 million project. Additionally, a Caltrans letter stated that the Federal Highway Administration failed to grant the exception needed to build the proposed half-interchange.
LAX to Orange County
In June 2015, it was reported that Caltrans was
seeking public reaction to an environmental analysis prepared for the pending
reconstruction of the chronically congested Crenshaw Boulevard and 182nd Street
interchange with I-405 that’s scheduled to start in July 2018. The
complex, four-year-long project is expected to cost $60.5 million to $85.2
million for its design and construction depending on which of three
alternatives is selected. The entire interchange is persistently overloaded, a
situation that worsens considerably during rush hour. Short on- and off-ramps
create potentially dangerous lines of vehicles on surface streets and on the
freeway itself, hampering the efficiency of I-405. Improvements to be made
include: (•) Adding an additional lane to the existing freeway on‐
and off- ramps and constructing a new two-lane on‐ramp to the SB I-405
from Crenshaw Boulevard; (•) Widening Crenshaw Boulevard south of the
interchange to make room for a new, exclusive right-turn lane onto the proposed
new southbound on-ramp; (•) Widening westbound 182nd Street between the NB
I-405 on- and off-ramps and Crenshaw Boulevard; and (•) Building or
reconstructing more than more than 12,000 feet of sound walls.
In October 2016, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project in Los Angeles County that will widen I-405, including the existing on- and off-ramps on Crenshaw Boulevard, and construct a new southbound on-ramp from Crenshaw Boulevard. The project is not fully funded. The project is fully funded for the environmental phase only with local funds. The total estimated cost is $87,100,000 for capital and support. Depending on the availability of funding, construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2020.
In March 2016, the Los Angeles MTA presented its full proposal for what
transit lines could be built -- and when -- if Los Angeles County voters
approve a half-cent sales tax increase in November 2016. This proposal included
funding for I-405 South Bay Curve Improvements. The project will add segments
of an Auxiliary Lane in each direction to address existing bottleneck and to
improve the weaving movements at on/off ramps, from Florence Ave. to I-110 for
a total of 10.4 miles, while maintaining the current existing facility
consisting of 4 Mixed-Flow lanes and 1 HOV lanes in each direction.
In March 2016, the CTC approved additional funding for a project on Route 405 in Los Angeles County from Postmile 12.6 to Postmile 21.2 (essentially, from I-110 to I-105) that will install concrete barrier and metal beam guardrail along the project limits.
Avalon Interchange Improvements
In October 2011, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project in Los Angeles County that will improve the Avalon Boulevard/I-405 interchange by constructing a new southbound on-ramp, widening the northbound off-ramp and on-ramp, and widening northbound Avalon Boulevard. The project is fully funded with Local and Federal funds. This project will be requesting a New Public Road Connection from the California Transportation Commission at the October 26-27, 2011 Meeting. The total estimated cost is $19,300,000. Construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2010-11. A copy of the ND has been provided to Commission staff. Due to potential impacts to visual resources, hydrology and water quality, community impacts, cultural resources, and the local economy, an Initial Study was completed for the project. Based upon environmental studies and proposed environmental commitments, including minimization and avoidance measures, incorporation of BMPs, limited hours of construction, the project will not have a significant effect on the environment. As a result, an ND was completed for this project.
The proposed new route connnection will be at Lenardo Drive. The specific proposal is to modify the Avalon Boulevard/I-405 interchange in the city of Carson to provide access to the approved development of the Carson Marketplace Project in the southwest quadrant of this interchange. The modifications to this interchange include the southerly extension of Lenardo Drive over the Torrance Lateral Channel to connect to Avalon Boulevard and the realignment of the southbound I-405 on and off ramps to begin and end at Lenardo Drive. This break in access control requires the approval of a new connection by the California Transportation Commission. The proposed improvements support the additional access needs of the Carson Marketplace Project and also address growing traffic volumes in the vicinity. The Avalon Boulevard interchange is located in the city of Carson, in Los Angeles County, between the Main Street and the Carson Street interchanges along I-405. I-405 has 12 lanes north of Avalon Boulevard and 10 lanes south of Avalon Boulevard. Traffic in the southbound direction is served by a loop on-ramp and a diagonal off-ramp in the southwest quadrant of the interchange. In the northbound direction the interchange is a half diamond. Avalon Boulevard is a major thoroughfare through the City of Carson with four to six lanes serving primarily residential, commercial, and light industrial traffic demands. The proposed interchange modification would extend the existing Lenardo Drive south from the proposed Carson Marketplace over the Torrance Lateral Channel to Avalon Boulevard. The existing southbound I-405 on- and off-ramps, located between the Torrance Lateral Channel and Avalon Boulevard, will be realigned and widened. A new two-lane southbound on-ramp will be constructed east of Avalon Boulevard and across from Lenardo Drive. The existing northbound off-ramp will be widened from one to three lanes at the terminus to increase storage capacity and to accommodate left turns. The northbound on-ramp will also be widened to increase capacity and accommodate two left-turn lanes from northbound Avalon Boulevard. The existing Avalon Boulevard structure will be widened and repaved.
In April 2017, it was reported that completion of the upgrade of the
Wilmington Interchange was delayed. Expansion of the often-clogged interchange
was supposed to finish early in 2016, but now completion isn’t expected
until 2018. Not only is the project two years behind schedule, it will cost $8
million more than expected because of delays and unanticipated underground
utilities that got in the way. This widening project was conceived in 2005 to
open up the intersection and freeway ramps so vehicles could more quickly move
through. Work is being done in five stages, with the third stage now nearly
complete. A newly built northbound I-405 on-ramp is nearly ready to open, and
much of the work on the dam and bridge over the Dominguez Channel is done.
Next, the bridge will be repaved. Wilmington Avenue also is being widened
between East 223rd Street and East 220th Street, and new pavement and other
upgrades are being added to the intersection and southbound ramp. The
project’s two-year delay is largely because Southern California Edison
was extremely slow to respond to work requests needed before construction
stages could begin. The company thought Edison would take months to do work
that it took years to do, said officials. Also, numerous underground oil
pipelines and utility lines, ducts and vaults were encountered that
weren’t anticipated in design plans. The Metropolitan Transportation
Authority and Federal Highway Administration financed much of the total $27
million cost. But bond funds were also used from Carson’s Successor
Agency, the city’s former redevelopment arm.
In March 2016, the Los Angeles MTA presented its full proposal for what
transit lines could be built -- and when -- if Los Angeles County voters
approve a half-cent sales tax increase in November 2016. This proposal included
funding for the I-110 Express Lane Ext South to I-405/I-110 Interchange. The
new project would extend the existing I-110 Express Lanes southward to the
I-405, for a total of 1 mile. This will create a total of 5 Mixed-Flow lanes
and 1 Express Lane for that mile. Additionally, the proposal included funding
for direct connector ramps between the I-110 and I-405 express lanes.
The LA Times reported in 2009 on a dichotomy between Los Angeles and Orange
County regarding I-405 widening. Although Orange County has plans to add up to
two lanes on each side of the roughly 14-mile stretch of I-405 between Route 73
and I-605. Bridges would also be rebuilt, some homes would be taken under
eminent domain and the carpool buffer would shrink. However, Los Angeles county
has no plans for widening. One reason is that the L.A. County side has less
space for expansion than Orange County does. Los Angeles county has focused
more energy and funds towards rail lines. This may create a problem similar to
that seen on I-5 at the county line.
In July 2013, it was reported that Long Beach has protested the expansion plans in the original study. The revised study presents three alternatives, in addition to the required no build alternative:
According to the supplemental study, between two to five intersections (not including ramps) in Long Beach would be impacted if one of the improvements is built. That number rises to four to nine intersections by 2040. The intersections immediately impacted by all three alternatives are at Los Coyotes Diagonal and Bellflower Boulevard and Willow Street and Bellflower Boulevard. If one of the larger alternatives is chosen, impacts are expected at Willow Street and Woodruff Avenue and Willow Street and Los Coyotes Diagonal. Percentages of intersection improvement costs paid for by Caltrans and OCTA in the draft report range from 30% to 4.45%, with each intersection costing between $240,000 to $810,000.
In August 2013, the CTC received a draft EIR for comment. The project in Los Angeles and Orange Counties proposes to construct roadway improvements on Interstate 405 (I-405) within the project limits, including 15 local street interchanges and three freeway-to-freeway interchanges (12-Ora-405, PM 9.3/24.2, 07-LA-405, PM 0.0/1.2, 12-Ora-22, PM R0.7/R3.8, 12-Ora-22, PM R0.5/R0.7, 12-Ora-73, PM R27.2/R27.8, 12-Ora-605, PM 3.5/R1.6 07-LA-605, PM R0.0/R1.2). The project is not fully funded. Depending on the alternative selected, the total estimated project cost ranges between $1.3 billion and $1.7 billion. The project will seek funding through the State Transportation Improvement Program, federal and local fund sources, and possibly toll revenue. Depending on the availability of funding, construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2015-16. Alternatives considered for the proposed project include:
According to the August 2013 revised study, the following measures would be incorporated to minimize impacts of the project:
In July 2015, it was reported that Long Beach is suing Caltrans and the
Orange County Transportation Authority over the $1.7 billion project to expand
I-405. The City Council authorized the city attorney in closed session Tuesday
to file the lawsuit challenging the environmental documents filed with the
plan, which widens I-405 by four lanes through Orange County to just past the
Long Beach border. The city is seeking additional measures to reduce the impact
of increased traffic on local streets. The environmental impact report for the
I-405 expansion lists five intersection that will see improvements in Long
Beach related to the widening plans, but assigns about 7-25 percent of the cost
for the upgrades to OCTA. The rest is expected to be picked up by the city.
Route 405/Route 22 Connectors
At its meeting on July 9, 2009, the CTC approved a CMIA project baseline agreement amendment to split the Route 22/405/605 HOV Connector with ITS Elements project (PPNO 2868C) into two construction projects: (1) Route 22 to I-405 between Seal Beach Boulevard and Valley View Street (PPNO 2868B); (2) I-405 to Route 605 between Katella Avenue and Seal Beach Boulevard (PPNO 2868C). In October 2009, the funding was rearranged to give some priority to the first of these two. In February 2010, the CTC approved amending the CMIA Program project baseline agreement for the Route 22/405/605 HOV Connector project (PPNO 2868C) to transfer $3,360,000 from CMIA reserve to Construction and reduce Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) funding by $24,100,000.
In September 2012, construction crews will shut down the eastbound Route 22 connector to the northbound I-405 for one year. The transition road, which carries about 3,000 vehicles a day must be rebuilt to make way for the new carpool lane connector between I-405 and I-605. During construction, the eastbound Route 22 transition to the northbound I-605 will remain open. From eastbound Route 22, the Orange County Transportation Authority advises motorists to exit and turn right at Studebaker Road and continue north to access the northbound I-405 on-ramp. All of the construction is part of a project that will connect carpool lanes on I-405, I-605 and Route 22. It's scheduled for completion in 2014.In December 2010, it was reported that construction was beginning, and commuters will be hit hard. The $277-million freeway project requires a series of road closures, including one of the main portals to a veterans' hospital and a major state university. The work will be done in two segments, and lane and street closures are to be sequenced to minimize some of the traffic impacts. When completed in 2014, the so-called West County Connector project built by the Orange County Transportation Authority will create a seamless link between carpool lanes and ease rush-hour bottlenecks on the I-405, Route 22 and I-605 freeways. The project calls for an additional carpool lane in each direction of the I-405 between Route 22 and I-605. Large overpasses will be built to connect the carpool lanes on the I-405 to those on the other freeways. Bridges and connectors throughout the project area are to be rebuilt, including those at 7th Street, Valley View Street and Seal Beach Boulevard. Onramps and offramps related to those structures also will be redone. In addition to 7th Street, two other heavily traveled bridges will be affected by the project: Seal Beach Boulevard over the I-405 and Valley View Street over Route 22. The number of traffic lanes will be reduced on the bridges for 11 months and 20 months, respectively.
In June 2007, the OCTA outlined a 5-year plan for the use of the 2nd Measure M funds that included adding lanes on Route 91 between I-5 and Route 57 and between Route 55 and the Riverside County border; adding lanes on I-405 between I-605 and Route 55; a new NB lane on Route 57 between Orangewood Avenue and Lambert Road.
In August 2015, the CTC authorized $82,000,000 for a project in Orange County on I-405 in Fountain Valley, from Ellis Street/ Euclid Avenue to Magnolia Street that would construct auxiliary lanes in each direction as part of the larger I-405 Widening project EA 0H100. This project is necessary to reduce congestion and improve highway operations and mobility.
As originally constructed, there were problems with the new HOV connector ramps between I-405 and Route 55. It seemed that the bridge had cracks so severe that the bridge might not be able to handle the weight of daily traffic. The estimated repair costs would be 80% of construction costs for this bridge. The bridge was eventually repaired and reopened.
In April 2007, the CTC considered approval of a Negative Environmental Impact Statement and approval of a public road connection for the Susan Street Ramp. This project would construct a northbound exit ramp about 0.4 miles beyond the Route 73 merge ramp onto I-405. The proposed exit ramp would connect to the southern extension Susan Street at the IKEA driveway intersection. The exit ramp is estimated to cost $1.5 million and is fully funded from local sources. Construction would begin in FY 2007-08. The proposed improvement will mitigate congestion by providing direct access from the northbound I-405 distributor road and diverting traffic from the existing Harbor Boulevard and Fairview Road interchanges to this proposed improvement at Susan Street. The proposed improvement is to construct a northbound I-405 off-ramp to Susan Street. Susan Street, a north-south arterial, is located north of I-405 midway between Harbor Boulevard and Fairview Road. The Susan Street off-ramp will begin 0.4 miles west of northbound Route 73 to northbound I-405 merge. The off-ramp extends 0.2 miles as a single lane and widens to three lanes at the ramp terminus. The Susan Street off-ramp will be braided below the Fairview Road on-ramp to northbound I-405. The proposed improvements will increase the capacity and improve operations of the existing Harbor Boulevard and Fairview Road interchanges.
HOT Lanes - Orange County
In February 2010, the Daily Pilot reported that the
Orange County Transportation Authority approved further environmental and
engineering study of a proposal to add high-occupancy toll (H.O.T.) lanes to
I-405 in Orange County between I-605 and Route 73. Specifically, the proposal
proposes to add one general-purpose lane and one H.O.T. lane in each direction
on I-405 between Route 73 and I-605 freeways. There is already one
high-occupancy vehicle lane in each direction that would be converted into a
H.O.T. lane, so it would create a total of two express H.O.T. lanes in each
direction. About $600 million in funding for the expansion is available from
Measure M2 – a ½¢ county sales tax that pays for transportation
improvements – but that is far less than is needed for even the most
modest expansion currently being considered. The cheapest option being explored
is to add one general-purpose lane in each direction, which would cost $1.7
billion but would generate no revenue. The most expensive is to add two express
lanes in each direction and charge tolls, which would cost $2.2 billion but
would generate $197 million annually – enough to support the full cost of
the project. The freeway expansion is tentatively slated to begin in 2016.
In June 2012, there were public hearings on the
plans to widen I-405 between I-605 and Route 73. Caltrans and the Orange County
Transportation Authority are looking at three alternatives for the San Diego
Freeway, between the Corona del Mar (SR-73) and the San Gabriel River (I-605)
freeways. The first option is to widen the I-405 by adding a single
general-purpose lane in each direction from Euclid Street to I-605. The second
option would do the same thing as the first and also add a general-purpose lane
in the northbound direction from Brookhurst Street to the Seventh Street exit
on Route 22 and a second general-purpose lane southbound from Seal Beach
Boulevard to Brookhurst. The third option would add one regular lane in each
direction of I-405 from Euclid Street to the I-605 interchange and a tolled
express in each direction from Route 73 to I-605. There also is a no-build
alternative. The third option has received an icy reception in Costa Mesa and
Westminster. Seal Beach doesn't want either the second or third options because
both would move a sound wall closer to the College Park East community. And in
Fountain Valley, some officials are concerned because of the impact on local
businesses. Under the third option, two toll lanes from Route 73 to I-605 would
be free to cars with three passengers most of the time, but there would be a
charge during peak hours. Cars with just a driver or two people would be
charged. A decision is in Summer 2012. Construction is scheduled to begin in
2015 and could last roughly 4½ years. The cost of the project ranges from $1.3
billion to $1.7 billion, depending on which alternative is chosen.
In August 2012, the CTC reviewed a draft EIR for this project, and indicated that there were no comments to the Draft EIR, that the Findings were accepted and that consideration of funding should be brought forward to the Commission for approval of Design Build funds. The Draft EIR proposed the following alternatives: (0) No Build Alternative; (1) Alternative 1 would add one general purpose lane; (2) Alternative 2 would add two general purpose lanes; and (3) Alternative 3 would add one general purpose lane and one Express Toll Lane. The Toll Express Lane and the existing High Occupancy Vehicle Lane would be managed jointly as a tolled Express Lanes Facility with two lanes in each direction.
In September (and again in October) 2012, the OCTA voted against HOT lanes for I-405 in Orange County. The OCTA did approve a $1.3 billion plan that adds one lane in each direction from Euclid Avenue to I-605. The project will be fully funded by Measure M, a half-cent sales tax voters approved in 2006. The board could not gather the votes in favor of the toll system because too many questions remained regarding how the anticipated toll revenue – about $1.5 billion generated over 20 years – would be used. Under the vetoed toll option, existing carpool lanes would be used to create toll express lanes between Route 73 and I-605. That alternative also included adding one general-purpose lane in each direction. In early 2013, the California Department of Transportation will look at three options. The first adds one general-purpose lane in each direction. Cost: $1.3 billion. The second adds two general-purpose lanes each way. Cost: $1.4 billion. A third option adds one general-purpose lane in each direction and a toll lane to the existing carpool lane that will be managed together. Cost: $1.7 billion. OCTA is working closely with Caltrans and anticipates they will concur with the board's selection of alternative 1.
In January 2013, it was reported that several
cities along the I-405 corridor in south Orange County want more widening than
the OCTA approved. They favor a proposal that would add two lanes in each
direction, not just one, at a cost of around $1.4 billion. Voters in 2006
approved the idea of adding one lane in each direction as part of a package of
transportation projects paid for with a half-percent sales tax, known as
Measure M2. Planners later raised two other possibilities. The first would add
two lanes in each direction. The other would add one normal lane and create two
pay-to-ride toll lanes in each direction, in part by using existing carpool
lanes. That last option drew immediate fire from cities along I-405. Six of
them – Costa Mesa, Huntington Beach, Westminster, Fountain Valley, Seal
Beach and Los Alamitos – launched a $25,000 lobbying effort to derail the
toll lanes and push for two new lanes in each direction. They're considering
whether to pool another $25,000 to keep the fight going. The $1.4 billion cost
to add two lanes in each direction may seem like a short jump from the $1.3
billion estimate for single lanes, but that's a difference of $100 million.
Those who support the double-lane solution say the money could be found in
other projects. The OCTA board, though, voted 12-4 last fall to support the
less-expensive single-lane project.
In December 2013, the OCTA approved adding a new lane in each direction of I-405 between the LA County Line and Costa Mesa. No toll lanes.
In July 2014, it was reported that Caltrans is
moving forward with a controversial plan to add toll lanes to I-405 in Orange
County despite strong opposition from nearby cities. The Caltrans plan
incorporates some of the OCTA proposal, but generated opposition because it
adds the toll component and overtakes an existing carpool lane to create the
two HOT lanes in each direction. Caltrans is exploring the possibility of
allowing vehicles with two or more occupants to ride free in the toll lanes,
but a final decision has not been made. Under the plan, Orange County transit
officials would continue with their project adding a free lane on each side of
the 405. When that work is done, Caltrans plans to build a second new lane on
each side. These new lanes, plus two existing carpool lanes, would then be
coverted to HOT lanes for use by solo drivings willing to pay as well as
carpoolers with multiple passengers.
In June 2015, it was reported that Caltrans
District 12 signed the Record of Decision sealing the selection of an
improvement project for the I-405 Freeway through Orange County. Caltrans has
chosen an alternative that adds a general purpose lane to I-405 in each
direction from Euclid Street in Fountain Valley to the I-605 interchange. It
also adds a toll lane in each direction between Route 73 and eastbound Route 22
in Westminster. It also will take the existing carpool lane in each direction
and add it to the tolled Express Lane. The Record of Decision identifies five
intersections in Long Beach with significant impacts from the expansion. The
percentage of cost OCTA is willing to pay for improvements ranges from 8% to
23%.In April 2014, it was reported that Orange County transportation officials
caved, indicating couldn't fight the state any longer and had to allow toll
lanes as part of a $1.7 billion expansion project of I-405. The board voted
12-4 to move forward with a 14-mile project to widen I-405 between Long Beach
and Costa Mesa by adding one regular lane and one toll lane in each direction.
It also calls for converting the existing carpool lane into a toll lane.
Caltrans will provide $82 million to subsidize the $400 million price tag for
the toll lanes. The move mirrors decisions by transportation officials in Los
Angeles a few years ago, when they caved in to state officials and added toll
lanes to I-110 and then the I-10 the following year. Under the project, cars
with at least two people will be allowed to use the toll lanes for free for at
least three years. The I-405 construction project will run from Route 73 in
Costa Mesa to I-605 near the Long Beach/Los Angeles County border. Construction
should begin in 2018; it is expected to take five years to complete. By the
year 2040, the expansion is estimated to shrink commute times in the free lanes
between the two areas from 57 minutes to 29 minutes.
In May 2015, it was reported that the director of
Caltrans District 12 had signed the Record of Decision sealing the selection of
an improvement project for the I-405 Freeway through Orange County. Caltrans
has chosen an alternative that adds a general purpose lane to I-405 in each
direction from Euclid Street in Fountain Valley to the I-605 interchange. It
also adds a toll lane in each direction between Route 73 and eastbound Route 22
in Westminster. It also will take the existing carpool lane in each direction
and add it to the tolled Express Lane. Long Beach has fought the project
because the freeway expansion stops at the city’s border, creating a
potential bottleneck. Orange County Transportation Authority officials have
argued that the beginning of I-605 at the county line mitigates the larger
I-405 feeding into the area. The Record of Decision acknowledges Long
Beach’s concerns, but says they have been answered in previous responses.
In regards to ongoing negotiations between Long Beach, OCTA and Caltrans
regarding mitigation payments for repair and upgrades of Long Beach city
streets near the freeway, the document says, “It is anticipated this
discussion would conclude prior to the start of project construction with an
agreement. Caltrans and OCTA are committed to payment of the fair share
identified in the Final EIR/EIS.” That document identifies five
intersections in Long Beach with significant impacts from the expansion.
However, the percentage of cost OCTA is willing to pay for improvements ranges
from 8% to 23% — an amount Long Beach officials have said is
In August 2015, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project in Orange and Los Angeles Counties that will construct improvements on the mainline freeway and interchanges on I-405 between Route 73 and I-605. The project is fully funded. The total estimated cost is $1,782,050,000 for capital and support. The project is programmed in the 2014 State Highway Operation and Protection Program for $82,050,000. The balance is funded with federal and local dollars. Construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2016-17. The scope, as described for the preferred alternative, is consistent with the project scope programmed by the Commission in the 2014 State Highway Operation and Protection Program. The EIR claims that project effects on the community have been mitigated to the maximum extent predictable but increased urbanization subsequent to the completion of the project and the temporary construction related effects are considered significant and unavoidable. They claim mitigations have been incorporated to address those issues.
In November 2015, it was reported that the OCTA
Board approved the short-listing of four design-build teams (OC 405 Partners,
Orange County Corridor Constructors, Shimmick/Tutor-Perini, and
Skanska-Flatiron) for the design and construction of the I-405 Improvement
Project. The development of the short list is the first of a two-part process
recommended under Assembly Bill (AB) 401, which grants design-build authority
to agencies like OCTA. During the second step, the short-listed teams will
provide feedback on the final request for proposal as part of an industry
review that will assist OCTA in evaluating project risks and cost drivers. Each
team will submit a technical and financial proposal, and OCTA will choose one
contractor based on its findings. The I-405 Improvement Project will add one
general purpose lane in each direction from Euclid Street to I-605 and add an
express lane in each direction. The new express lane, along with the existing
high-occupancy vehicle lane, would become dual express toll lanes in each
direction on I-405 from Route 73 to I-605.
In March 2016, it was reported that the OCTA Board
of Directors voted on March 14, 2016 to enter into cooperative agreements with
the cities of Costa Mesa, Fountain Valley, Huntington Beach, and Westminster to
provide city services required during the design-build implementation of the
Interstate 405 (I-405) Improvement Project. Because the project includes
improvements to city-owned and operated streets and will impact some city
traffic facilities, a cooperative agreement with each of the I-405 corridor
cities is necessary to define the roles and responsibilities of each agency
during the project’s implementation.
In April 2016, it was reported that attorneys for
the city of Long Beach and the California Department of Transportation have
agreed to litigate the case in a neutral county, San Diego. Long Beach sued the
state in summer 2015 over plans to add one toll lane and one free lane to I-405
between Route 73 in Costa Mesa and I-605 near the Los Angeles County line. The
proposal also calls for converting the existing carpool lane into a toll lane.
Seal Beach also filed a lawsuit against the project. Both cities say they are
not against the $1.7 billion freeway expansion itself; instead, they want
Caltrans and the Orange County Transportation Authority to pay for more traffic
congestion solutions on city surface streets. The California Department of
Transportation will provide $82 million to subsidize the $400 million
construction price tag for the toll lanes.
In April 2016, it was also reported that initial
findings of a traffic and revenue study for express lanes on I-405 –
which near the Los Angeles County line is the nation’s most heavily
traveled freeway – have been released and Orange County transportation
officials will soon determine a toll structure. Stantec, a consultant for the
transportation agency, presented board members with a traffic and revenue study
outlining three toll options for 14 miles of I-405 between Route 73 and I-605.
Tolls could range from an average of about $9 in peak hours to $2 in the
off-peak, depending on the toll option for the 14-mile stretch, with lower
tolls for shorter trips, according to the study. The study indicated that
allowing carpools of at least two people to use the proposed express lanes for
free during rush hours – which the OCTA wanted – would not assure a
free-flowing commute for customers and could result in tolls of up to $15.46
during peak periods. Options were presented ranged from free or a 50% discount
for all vehicles with more than three passengers (HOV+3) to a full toll all the
time for all vehicles with two passengers or less (HOV+2). OCTA board members
are expected to vote on a toll policy and financing plan for the express lanes
May 23. The transportation agency plans to secure financing throughout the
summer and enter into an operating toll agreement with Caltrans. Construction
is slated to begin in 2017 and run about five years.
In June 2016, it was reported that the OCTA board
members had approved the initial 405 Express Lanes toll policy. The approved
initial toll policy will allow two-person carpools to remain free in the
existing carpool lanes until 2023. After the toll lanes open in 2023,
two-person carpools will remain free for the first three and a half years
during non-peak hours, pending the results of the project traffic and revenue
study. In addition, the California Transportation Commission (CTC) voted
unanimously to approve OCTA’s application to develop and operate a
high-occupancy toll (HOT) facility for the I-405 Improvement Project, pursuant
to Assembly Bill (AB) 194. AB 194 allows regional transportation agencies such
as OCTA to apply to the CTC to operate HOT lanes, while ensuring local control.
This is the first project approved under this authority. The CTC’s
approval will allow OCTA to move forward with the development of the 405
Express Lanes’ operating and enforcement agreements with Caltrans.
In October 2016, the CTC approved a $7,771,000
allocation from the Budget Act of 2016, Budget Act Item 2660-304-6056 for the
following locally administered Proposition 1B Trade Corridor Improvement Fund
Program project: OCTA 12-Ora-405 9.3/24.2 | I-405 Improvement - Route
73 to I-605. Add one general purpose lane, and one tolled express
lane, in both the north and southbound direction;
In November 2016, it was reported that the OCTA
board awarded a $1.2 billion design-build contract – the largest in the
agency’s history – to add one regular lane in each direction and an
express lanes toll facility to relieve traffic on I-405. Upon completion of the
I-405 Improvement Project, travel time on the highway from Route 73 to I-605,
consistently ranked among the busiest in the nation, is expected to take 29
minutes during rush hour and 13 minutes on the 405 Express Lanes, by the year
2040. OCTA board members, by a 14-0 vote, selected OC 405 Partners – a
team of firms led by OHL USA Inc. and Astaldi Construction Corporation –
which offered the lowest price for the job of three qualified bidders. This
makes the I-405 Improvement Project the first in California that will be built
following the passage of AB 401, which allows regional transportation agencies
and Caltrans to use a design-build method to deliver highway projects in a way
that reduces time and cost. Construction is slated to start in early 2017 with
the new regular and express lanes at the center of the highway opening in 2023.
The I-405 Express Lanes will also be the first project in California to use the
tolling authority provided last year under AB 194 that ensures that any excess
toll revenue will be used to fund improvements on local streets and public
transportation. In addition to building new lanes, the I-405 project includes
constructing 18 bridges and improving access to highway and traffic on
In February 2017, it was reported that on January
31, 2017, OCTA's CEO, Darrell Johnson, signed a $1.2 billion contract with OC
405 Partners for the design and construction of the I-405 Improvement Project.
This is the largest contract in OCTA's history. With this signature, OCTA has
issued Notice to Proceed No. 1 to the design-build team, which marks the
official beginning of the I-405 Improvement Project. The project is the first
in the state being built using the design-build authority provided under
Assembly Bill 401 by Assemblyman Tom Daly, passed in 2013. AB 401 provides
authority for regional transportation agencies and Caltrans to use the
design-build method of project delivery on state highway projects, resulting in
cost and time savings. The project, set to begin construction this year,
includes adding one regular lane in each direction – as promised in
Measure M, Orange County’s half-cent sales tax for transportation
improvements – and building the 405 Express Lanes in the center of the
freeway. In addition to constructing the new lanes, the project will rebuild 18
bridges and improve freeway access and traffic on local streets.
In August 2017, it was reported that a loan secured
by OCTA marks a major milestone in funding the I-405 Improvement Project while
saving taxpayers millions of dollars. At the end of July 2017, OCTA signed the
final documents with the U.S. Department of Transportation for the $627 million
loan through the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act
(TIFIA). The TIFIA loan will pay for a major portion of the $1.9 billion worth
of freeway improvements set to begin construction early in 2018. The
loan’s low 2.91 percent interest rate is expected to save Orange County
taxpayers about $300 million over the 35-year life of the loan as compared to
traditional bond financing. The loan will be repaid solely using revenue
collected from drivers who choose to use the 405 Express Lanes being built as
part of the project. In addition, the TIFIA loan will save 405 Express Lanes
users up to 20 percent in toll charges, finalizing OCTA’s commitment of
allowing vehicles with more than one occupant to initially use the facility for
free or at a reduced cost. With the loan secured, OCTA has given the
contractor, OC 405 Partners, notice to fully proceed with the design and
construction of the project. It’s expected the project will begin
construction by early 2018 with completion anticipated for 2023.
In August 2016, it was reported that Caltrans plans to close Red Hill Avenue
to all traffic between Pullman Street in Costa Mesa and Main Street in Irvine
starting at Aug. 29. The bridge is part of that stretch. It is being shut down
for four months of repairs to stabilize the embankment under one of the
approach ramps. The roadway is expected to remain closed until Dec. 30. The
closure is necessary because the earth under the approach ramp on the Costa
Mesa side is moving, which has caused walls meant to keep the soil in place to
bulge slightly and "triggered progressive pavement cracks on the roadway
above," according to Caltrans. As part of the $9.5-million project, the
underlying soil embankment will be reinforced and new retaining walls will be
Sand Canyon Auxiliary Lanes
There are plans to add auxiliary lanes from Sand Canyon Road on-ramp to Jeffrey Road, and from Route 133 to San Canyon Road. July 2005 CTC Agenda.
In May 2013, the CTC received notice that the OCTA would propose delaying the environmental phase of the Route 405 Southbound Auxiliary Lane – University to Sand Canyon project to FY 2014-15 in order to align the project with the schedule of an adjacent Route 405 southbound auxiliary lane project. In June 2013, the CTC approved delaying $224,000 in RIP PA&ED from FY 2013-14 to FY 2014-15 for the Route 405 Southbound Auxiliary Lane – University to Sand Canyon project (PPNO 4956) in Orange County.
In August 2014, the CTC authorized $528K for construction of an auxiliary lane on I-405 from University to Route 133 southbound.
In January 2016, the CTC approved SHOPP funding on I-405 in Irvine, Fountain Valley and Seal Beach at Route 133, Brookhurst Street, Warner Avenue, and Seal Beach Boulevard. Outcome/Output: Widen ramp, overlay connector and ramps with open graded hot mix asphalt, upgrade guardrail and install lighting to reduce the number and severity of collisions. $1,313,000
The SAFETEA-LU act, enacted in August 2005 as the reauthorization of TEA-21, provided the following expenditures for this route:
This route is named the "San Diego" Freeway; the first portion opened in 1957; the last in 1969. It was named by the State Highway Commission on November 18, 1954. San Diego refers to the eventual southern terminus of the route (after all merges). The name refers to Saint Didacus of Alcalá, a Franciscan saint of the 15th century. The bay was named by Vizcaíno in 1602, the mission in 1769, the county in 1850 and the new city in 1856. The name was likely given to encourage people to take the I-405 bypass of downtown to go to San Diego (connecting with I-5 to the S).
The portion of I-405 between postmiles 1.525 (just S of San Diego Creek (South Fork), just S of Route 133) and 6.459 (San Diego Creek, North Fork, NW of Harvard Ave) in the County of Orange is named the "James Mitchell “Mitch” Waller Memorial Highway". It was named in memory of James Mitchell “Mitch” Waller, who was born in September 1959, in Dallas, Texas. In 1965, Waller and his family moved to Huntington Beach, California, where he began his education. Waller joined the Boy Scouts of America as a Cub Scout in his early school years and continued to participate in the organization as a Boy Scout through high school, earning the prestigious rank of Eagle Scout. Waller graduated from Edison High School in 1977. He continued his education at the University of California, San Diego and graduated in 1983 with a bachelor of arts degree in Biochemistry and Cellular Biology and a minor in Economics. Waller attended the Criminal Justice Training Center at Golden West College, after which he began his career in law enforcement with the City of Westminster Police Department in 1984. While continuing his duties with the City of Westminster Police Department, Waller attended Chapman University School of Law in 1995. He completed his juris doctor degree and passed the California Bar in 1999. In 2003, he was selected to attend the Federal Bureau of Investigation National Academy in Quantico, Virginia. As a community leader, Waller rose through the ranks to become Chief of Police for the Westminster Police Department. He served the law enforcement and safety communities for 27 years. Waller remained committed to the Westminster community and worked to develop positive staff relations, communications, and infrastructure. Under his direction, the new Westminster Police Department building was completed in 2011, on time and under budget—an accomplishment of which he was very proud. Waller accepted an appointment to the office of the Westminster City Manager in 2011, and he retired in 2012. In his neighborhood in the community of Mission Viejo, Waller was known for generosity with both his time and talents. He was very active in his daughter softball teams, supporting them with everything from coaching assistance to first aid. For his son, Mitch assisted with his training for the high school cross-country and track teams, always there to offer his encouragement and support. The exemplary life of Mitch Waller ended tragically in an accident on the morning of Friday, June 28, 2013, at 53 years of age, while he was cycling with his good friend in the bike lane on Route 133, heading toward Laguna Beach—a favorite destination. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 65, Res. Chapter 169, Statutes of 2015, on September 10, 2015.
The portion of I-405 between postmile 24.178 (San Gabriel River
overcrossing, just NW of I-605 interchange) and postmile 20.4 (just SE of the
Route 22 interchange and Bolsa Chica Road) in the County of Orange is named the
"Kevin Woyjeck Memorial Highway". As the son of a captain in the Los
Angeles County Fire Department, the grandson of a smokejumper, and the eighth
firefighter in the Woyjeck family, Kevin Woyjeck knew from an early age that he
wanted to be a firefighter. Kevin grew up in Seal Beach, California, and
attended McGaugh Elementary School in Seal Beach and McAuliffe Middle School
and Los Alamitos High School, both in Los Alamitos, California. He spent every
summer for nine years as a Seal Beach Junior Lifeguard. When he was 15 years
old, Kevin joined the Los Angeles County Fire Department Explorer Program.
Kevin became an emergency medical technician while in high school and worked on
an ambulance crew shortly after graduating. Kevin had extensive training as a
firefighter, having taken firefighting classes at Santa Ana College, El Camino
College Structure Fire Academy, and the Department of Forestry and Fire
Protection Academy in San Luis Obispo. Kevin also spent a season in South
Dakota, where he joined the Johnson Valley Volunteer Fire Department and
performed indirect wildland firefighting for the South Dakota Wildland Fire
Division as part of a Type 2-IA Handcrew. In April 2013, Kevin was honored to
join the Granite Mountain Hotshots, an elite crew of 20 young men in top
condition, based in Prescott, Arizona, who had direct wildland firefighting
responsibilities with the ability to provide service anywhere in the nation.
After successfully fighting fires and saving lives and property in New Mexico
and Arizona, Kevin and the other members of the crew responded to an
out-of-control fire in Yarnell, Arizona, on June 30, 2013. Nineteen of the
twenty young men in the Granite Mountain Hotshots tragically lost their lives
in the fire, including Kevin. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR)
100, Res. Chapter 116, Statutes of 2016 on August 16, 2016.
The portion of I-405 from Atlantic Avenue to Cherry Avenue south, in the County of Los Angeles, is named the "Signal Hill Police Officer Anthony “Tony” Giniewicz Memorial Highway". It was named in memory of Officer Anthony “Tony” Giniewicz, who faithfully served the Signal Hill Police Department and the residents of the City of Signal Hill as a police officer assigned to patrol operations. Officer Giniewicz was shot in the line of duty by three gang members while responding to a robbery in progress at a restaurant in the City of Long Beach on February 19, 1985. Officer Giniewicz was paralyzed from the chest down as a result of his wounds and remained in poor health until passing away as a result of complications on December 7, 2011. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution 84, Resolution Chapter 89, on July 9, 2014.
The portion of I-405 from Redondo Beach Boulevard to South Western Avenue in
the County of Los Angeles is named the "Louis Zamperini Memorial
Highway". Louis Silvie Zamperini was born in January 1917, in Olean, New
York, to Italian immigrants Anthony Zamperini and Louise Dossi.
Zamperini’s family moved to Torrance, California, in 1919. Louis
Zamperini learned to box before he became a runner. His father taught him how
to box so he could defend himself against bullies who taunted him because he
could not speak English. Pete Zamperini, his older brother, encouraged him to
try out for the track team at Torrance High School. Louis Zamperini set the
national high school record in the mile at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in
1934, earning him the nickname of the “Torrance Tornado.” His
record time of 4 minutes, 21.2 seconds stood for 20 years. His schoolboy
exploits on the track team earned him a scholarship to the University of
Southern California. Two years later, in the 5,000-meter Olympic trials at
Randalls Island in New York, Louis Zamperini finished in a dead heat with Don
Lash, the world-record holder, which qualified him for the 1936 Olympics in
Berlin as a teenager, alongside such Olympians as Jesse Owens, Ralph Metcalfe,
and Mack Robinson, the older brother of Jackie Robinson. Two years later, in
1938, Louis Zamperini set a national collegiate mile record of 4:08.3, which
stood for 15 years. He subsequently graduated from the University of Southern
California, and not long after that, when World War II broke out, he enlisted
in September 1941 in the United States Army Air Corps and became a bombardier
on a Consolidated B-24 bomber in the Pacific theater of operations. During a
search and rescue mission to save a downed pilot, Louis Zamperini’s
airplane crashed due to mechanical failure, and he and two other airmen were
the only survivors of the 11-man crew on board the airplane. One of the men
died after 33 days, and Louis Zamperini and the other airman were stranded on a
raft for a total of 47 days before washing ashore on a Pacific island and being
taken as prisoners of war (POWs) by the Japanese. Louis Zamperini was tortured
for the next two years and was only released and returned to the United States
after the end of the war in the Pacific in 1945. After the war, he founded a
camp for troubled youths called the Victory Boys Camp. Louis Zamperini married
in 1946 and remained married until his wife's death in 2001. His marriage
became strained because of his nightmares reliving his World War II
experiences, and he began drinking heavily, trying to forget his experiences as
a POW. In 1949, at the encouragement of his wife, Louis Zamperini reluctantly
agreed to attend a Billy Graham crusade. Graham’s preaching reminded him
of his prayers during his time on the life raft and his imprisonment, and
Zamperini recommitted his life to Christ. Following this, he forgave his
Japanese tormentors, and his nightmares ceased. Louis Zamperini was a defiant,
resourceful, and determined man. He became an Olympic athlete and survived a
plane crash, being lost at sea, and the worst of a Japanese prisoner-of-war
camp during World War II. In 1998, he carried the Olympic torch at the Winter
Olympics held in Nagano, Japan. He also spent the last 65 years of his life
sharing his faith and his philosophy of life with as many audiences as would
invite him to speak. In his talks, he included the concepts of forgiveness,
hardiness, preparation, and a new life in Christ. Louis Zamperini was also
quick-witted, fun-loving, humble, and extremely caring of other people. On July
2, 2014, Louis Silvie Zamperini passed away at his home in Los Angeles,
California, at 97 years of age. His dramatic life story (Olympian and World War
II POW) has been told in various books, including the 2010 biography
“Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and
Redemption,” by Laura Hillenbrand and the December 2014 film
“Unbroken,” directed by Angelina Jolie. Named by Assembly
Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 157, Res. Chapter 122, Statutes of 2016 on August
The portion of I-405 between Rosecrans Avenue in the City of Manhattan Beach and Hawthorne Boulevard in the City of Lawndale is named the Martin L. Ganz Memorial Highway. It was named in memory of Martin L. Ganz, a police officer with the Manhattan Beach Police Department. Officer Ganz was a well-liked and respected Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) officer who took great care to teach the children of Manhattan Beach to stay away from drugs and alcohol. He was a member of the South Bay Regional Driving Under the Influence Task Force and prided himself on taking drunk drivers off the streets. On December 27, 1993, Officer Ganz was shot and killed in the line of duty while protecting the people and property of the City of Manhattan Beach. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 145, August 19, 2004. Chapter 148
The portion of I-405 between Rosecrans Avenue and El Segundo Boulevard in the County of Los Angeles is named the "Hawthorne Police Officer Andrew Garton Memorial Highway". It was named in memory of Hawthorne Police Officer Andrew Garton, a seven-year veteran of the Hawthorne Police Department, who died on May 26, 2011 from injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash during the funeral procession of another fallen officer. Officer Garton, 44, was the first Hawthorne officer to die in the line of duty in the department’s 89-year history. Garton was born on January 23, 1967, in San Fernando, California, and graduated from Antelope Valley High. Prior to becoming a police officer, Andrew was a skilled ceramic tile setter. He met his wife, Tracy, in 1989 while installing tile at the house that would eventually become their home. Andrew and his wife married at SeaCoast Grace Church in April 1993, and continued to reside in Orange County. Inspired by Sgt. Shawn Shimono, a close friend for over 20 years, Andrew entered the police academy, graduating on February 20, 2004, and became a Hawthorne police officer. Andrew served as Vice President of the Hawthorne Police Officer’s Association and as Treasurer of the Hawthorne Police Officer’s Association Political Action Committee. Andrew was a long-time member of the Hawthorne SWAT Team, and an accomplished motor vehicle and traffic investigator. He was also active in both scouting and coaching youth baseball. For those who knew him, he was both a mentor and a friend. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 100, Resolution Chapter 109, on September 4, 2012.
Before 1954, this route was named the "Sepulveda Freeway". Sepulveda refers to the boulevard that the route parallels, which was named for the Sepulveda family of early Los Angeles.
The portion of Route 405 from Howard Hughes Parkway to Mulholland Drive in the County of Los Angeles is named the "Nathan Shapell Memorial Highway". This segment was named in honor of Nathan Shapell, a builder of lives who was dedicated to helping others less fortunate. A survivor of the Holocaust, he was determined to not only rebuild his own life, but to help others rebuild theirs. For more than five years after World War II, he built a community for thousands of displaced people and survivors of the camps before emigrating to the United States in the early 1950s. Shapell built a highly successful real estate development company that is recognized as an industry leader and highly respected as a role model for corporate philanthropy. He dedicated a major portion of his life to public service. He was a past President and Executive Board Member of the American Academy of Achievement and served as a Member of President Reagan's Private Sector Survey on Cost Control. He founded and cochaired Building a Better Los Angeles, a one-time project that raised over $1 million for the homeless. In 1987, he accepted the position of President of D.A.R.E. America, a renowned drug abuse resistance education program. In 1992, Governor Pete Wilson appointed him to serve as a member of the California Competitiveness Council and develop recommendations to revitalize California's economy. Nathan Shapell's greatest public contributions were made through his 29 years of service on California's "Little Hoover Commission." As chairman for an unprecedented 18 years of this one-of-a-kind commission, he helped save taxpayers billions of dollars and improve the lives of hundreds of thousands of Californians in areas that include nursing home operations, children's services, property management, transportation, the Medi-Cal program, and public education. Nathan Shapell's commitment to service on behalf of the public was recognized in 1986 when Santa Clara University bestowed upon him an honorary Doctorate of Public Service degree. In 1987, Tel Aviv University awarded Mr. Shapell a Doctor Philosophiae Honoris Causa. He chronicled the early years of his life in his book, "Witness to the Truth". Mr. Shapell lived in Beverly Hills until his death on March 11, 2007. (What is interesting, perhaps because it was a rush job, is that the resolution doesn't mention that Mr. Shapell built loads and loads of homes in areas that were developed due to the freeways, such as the S.F. Bay area and Porter Ranch. Some might say that it would have been more appropriate to designate Route 118 between Balboa Blvd and Topanga Canyon Blvd in his honor. However, also not mentioned in Shapell's Jewish philanthrophy, which is perhaps the basis for having the route on the heavily Jewish westside, ending at Mulholland, where the Skirball Center, American Jewish University, and Stephen S. Wise Temple are located) Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 73, Resolution Chapter 148, on 10/2/2007.
The portion of Route 405 from Venice Boulevard to National Boulevard in the City of Los Angeles is officially designated the "CHP Officer Philip Dennis Ortiz Memorial Highway" It was named in memory of CHP Officer Philip Dennis Ortiz. Ortiz was born June 27, 1961, in Santa Monica, California. He graduated from Santa Monica High School in 1979 and attended Santa Monica City College. Prior to joining the California Highway Patrol (CHP), Philip worked for a local supermarket; however, he always had a dream of becoming a CHP Officer. On December 23,1982, CHP Officer Philip Dennis Ortiz, badge number 10428, graduated from the CHP Academy and was assigned to the central Los Angeles area office. After more than seven years of service in the central Los Angeles area, Officer Ortiz was transferred to the west Los Angeles area, where he spent the remainder of his career. Officer Ortiz performed several duties over the course of his career, some of which included a motorcycle officer, a motorcycle officer in charge of training the officers who successfully passed motor school, a weapons/range officer, a physical methods of arrest (PMA) instructor, and protective services detail (PSD). On June 22, 2010, CHP Officer Philip Dennis Ortiz pulled a vehicle over for a high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane violation. While approaching the vehicle, another car was driving along the shoulder and struck Officer Ortiz and his motorcycle. Officer Ortiz was transported to the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center where he remained until his passing almost two weeks later. Officer Ortiz is admired for his professionalism, dedication, honesty, loyalty, respect, courage, and "espirit de corps." He consistently represented the best of the CHP and was an outstanding role model. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 41, Resolution Chapter 52, on July 15, 2011.
The I-405/I-10 Interchange is named the "Marilyn Jorgenson Reece Memorial Interchange". It was named in honor of Marilyn Jorgenson Reece, who was born and raised in North Dakota and earned a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1948. Ms. Reece moved to Los Angeles with her parents shortly after graduation in 1948, and went to work for the State Division of Highways, which later became the Department of Transportation, as a junior civil engineer in Los Angeles. After six years of experience required to sit for the Professional Engineers Exam, Marilyn Jorgenson Reece became the state's first fully licensed female civil engineer in 1954. In 1962, Marilyn Jorgenson Reece received the Governor's Design Excellence Award from Governor Pat Brown for designing the I-10/I-405 interchange. Ms. Reece became the Division of Highway's first woman resident engineer for construction projects shortly after receiving that award. The three-level I-10/I-405 interchange designed by Marilyn Jorgenson Reece opened in 1964 and was the first interchange designed in California by a woman engineer. Urban critic Reyner Banham, author of <I>Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies</I>, admired the wide-swinging curved ramps connecting the two freeways, and wrote that the I-10/I-405 interchange "is a work of art, both as a pattern on the map, as a monument against the sky, and as a kinetic experience as one sweeps through it". During her 35-year career, Marilyn Jorgenson Reece's projects included serving as senior engineer for the completion of Route 210 through Sunland in 1975—at the time, the largest construction project the Department of Transportation had ever awarded—at $40 million. After retiring in 1983, Marilyn Jorgenson Reece taught engineering classes at Cal State Long Beach; and during Women's History Month in 1983, the Los Angeles City Council honored Marilyn Jorgenson Reece for making significant contributions to the city. In 1991, Marilyn Jorgenson Reece received life membership in the American Society of Civil Engineers. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution (SCR) 72, Resolution Chapter 96, on 8/15/2006.
The freeway interchange between Route 105 and Route 405 is officially designated the "Sadao S. Munemori Memorial Freeway Interchange". Sadao S. Munemori, an American of Japanese ancestry, served in the 100th Infantry Battalion of the US Army, a unit composed mainly of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii. This battalion later became part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most highly decorated unit of World War II for its size and time in combat. In March 1945, Private Munemori and his company were ordered back to Northern Italy to join forces in the final push against the Gustav Line, a fortified German position that had held up the Allied advance for more than four months. On April 5, 1945, the company came under murderous fire, and its commander, Lt. David Novack, and squad leader, Staff Sgt. Kei Yamaguchi, were severely wounded and Private Munemori took command and single handedly, using grenades, knocked out two enemy machine guns, giving his own life to save two of his comrades when he used his own body to shield them from an exploding enemy grenade. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 41, Chapter 131, in 1994.
The interchange of I-405 and I-110 in the City of Carson in the County of Los Angeles is named the "CHP Officer Merle L. Andrews Memorial Interchange". This interchange was named in memory of CHP Officer Merle L. Andrews, who was killed in the line of duty on December 20, 1967. Officer Andrews was attempting to arrest a man wanted in connection with a stolen vehicle, robbery, and kidnaping when the man opened fire on Officer Andrews, and Officer Andrews succumbed to his injuries as a result of the shooting. Officer Andrews was born on February 4, 1928, in Redondo Beach, California; his family settled in Compton where he graduated from Compton High School and attended Compton Junior College. He enlisted in the United States Navy serving from 1945 through 1949, and also followed in the footsteps of his father and brother by joining the Compton Police Department. He joined the CHP on July 8, 1958. After successfully completing his academy training, he reported to the South Los Angeles area on October 3, 1958. During his CHP career, Merle L. Andrews made significant contributions to traffic safety and assisting the motoring public and was known by his fellow officers for his dedication to the department and to the protection of the citizens of our state. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 20, Resolution Chapter 65, on 07/07/2005.
Approved as chargeable Interstate on 9/15/1955; Freeway. Originally, the California Department of Highways proposed this as I-9. In April 1958, they proposed it as I-3. They later suggested I-405, and that suggestion was accepted by AASHTO.
Commuter lanes exist or are planned for this route in the following areas.
All lanes require two or more occupants, and are always in operation.
The following segments are designated as Classified Landscaped Freeway:
[SHC 253.1] Entire route. Added to the Freeway and Expressway system in 1959.
Overall statistics for Route 405:
||This route ran from US 99 in Redding to Lassen National Park via Viola. It was signed as part of the original state signage of routes as Route 440, and was an extension of LRN 20, defined in 1933. In 1935, it was re-signed as Route 44.|
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